Unit 5 Practice Test

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Question 1

Questions 1–3 refer to the passage below.

How different is our situation! We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs. If we could at least have managed our domestic affairs and our internal administration, we could have acquainted ourselves with the processes and mechanics of public affairs. We should also have enjoyed a personal consideration, thereby commanding a certain unconscious respect from the people, which is so necessary to preserve amidst revolutions. That is why I say we have even been deprived of an active tyranny, since we have not been permitted to exercise its functions.

Americans today, and perhaps to a greater extent than ever before, who live within the Spanish system occupy a position in society no better than that of serfs destined for labor, or at best they have no more status than that of mere consumers. Yet even this status is surrounded with galling restrictions, such as being forbidden to grow European crops, or to store products which are royal monopolies, or to establish factories of a type the Peninsula itself does not possess. To this add the exclusive trading privileges, even in articles of prime necessity, and the barriers between American provinces, designed to prevent all exchange of trade, traffic, and understanding. In short, do you wish to know what our future held?—simply the cultivation of the fields of indigo, grain, coffee, sugar cane, cacao, and cotton; cattle raising on the broad plains; hunting wild game in the jungles; digging in the earth to mine its gold—but even these limitations could never satisfy the greed of Spain.

-Reply of a South American to a Gentleman of this Island (Jamaica), 1815, by Simón Bolívar
 

Based on the document and using your prior knowledge, Bolívar’s ideas were influenced by which of the following?

A
The protection of the traditional Spanish social hierarchy
B
The creation of joint-stock companies and their royal abuse of exclusive control over sugar in the Americas
C
The Haitian and American Revolutions
D
The eradication of the mit’a system in the middle ages
Question 1 Explanation: 
Option C is the correct response because Bolivar is writing this letter based on the independence movements already happening in America. Option A is the opposite of Bolivar’s purpose in writing this document and option B’s sugar is not his only mention. Also option D is historically inaccurate.
Question 2

How different is our situation! We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs. If we could at least have managed our domestic affairs and our internal administration, we could have acquainted ourselves with the processes and mechanics of public affairs. We should also have enjoyed a personal consideration, thereby commanding a certain unconscious respect from the people, which is so necessary to preserve amidst revolutions. That is why I say we have even been deprived of an active tyranny, since we have not been permitted to exercise its functions.

Americans today, and perhaps to a greater extent than ever before, who live within the Spanish system occupy a position in society no better than that of serfs destined for labor, or at best they have no more status than that of mere consumers. Yet even this status is surrounded with galling restrictions, such as being forbidden to grow European crops, or to store products which are royal monopolies, or to establish factories of a type the Peninsula itself does not possess. To this add the exclusive trading privileges, even in articles of prime necessity, and the barriers between American provinces, designed to prevent all exchange of trade, traffic, and understanding. In short, do you wish to know what our future held?—simply the cultivation of the fields of indigo, grain, coffee, sugar cane, cacao, and cotton; cattle raising on the broad plains; hunting wild game in the jungles; digging in the earth to mine its gold—but even these limitations could never satisfy the greed of Spain.

-Reply of a South American to a Gentleman of this Island (Jamaica), 1815, by Simón Bolívar
 

The struggle hinted at in Bolívar’s argument would result in which of the following occurring?

A
The migration of South American creoles to the United States to enjoy greater freedoms
B
The unification of all of South American territories under Simón Bolívar's command
C
The complete collapse of the Spanish Empire
D
The end of the Spanish Empire’s control in South America
Question 2 Explanation: 
Creoles wanted more freedoms in South America, and South America engaged in the opposite of unification. Therefore options A, B and C are incorrect. Option D is correct because the Spanish lost control of their territories in South America.
Question 3

How different is our situation! We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs. If we could at least have managed our domestic affairs and our internal administration, we could have acquainted ourselves with the processes and mechanics of public affairs. We should also have enjoyed a personal consideration, thereby commanding a certain unconscious respect from the people, which is so necessary to preserve amidst revolutions. That is why I say we have even been deprived of an active tyranny, since we have not been permitted to exercise its functions.

Americans today, and perhaps to a greater extent than ever before, who live within the Spanish system occupy a position in society no better than that of serfs destined for labor, or at best they have no more status than that of mere consumers. Yet even this status is surrounded with galling restrictions, such as being forbidden to grow European crops, or to store products which are royal monopolies, or to establish factories of a type the Peninsula itself does not possess. To this add the exclusive trading privileges, even in articles of prime necessity, and the barriers between American provinces, designed to prevent all exchange of trade, traffic, and understanding. In short, do you wish to know what our future held?—simply the cultivation of the fields of indigo, grain, coffee, sugar cane, cacao, and cotton; cattle raising on the broad plains; hunting wild game in the jungles; digging in the earth to mine its gold—but even these limitations could never satisfy the greed of Spain.

-Reply of a South American to a Gentleman of this Island (Jamaica), 1815, by Simón Bolívar
 

Based on the passage, it can be inferred that, in the early 19th century, international relations were centered around the need for

A
the ruling monarchs' ability to control people of low socioeconomic status
B
governments ruled by enlightenment ideas and self determination
C
traditional subsistence agricultural practices to feed the people
D
the desire to industrialize and compete internationally with European powers
Question 3 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because Bolívar states that the people of Latin America should control their own government. Options A and B are incorrect because he believes monarchies should be abolished and uses agricultural practices to support his claim. Option D is incorrect because he is hoping for independence, not industrialization.
Question 4

Questions 4–5 refer to the passage below.

You send me alarming news from our sugar islands, principally from Saint Domingue. The inhabitants of that island may all be currently being held at knife point by the Negroes in revolt.

Perverse men abuse the purity of your intentions, criminally interpreting the decrees of the National Assembly and making their treacherous plans undo what humanity and liberty have done for the happiness of its citizens in another hemisphere. In the name of this humanity, of which you are a worthy apostle, and in the name of the homeland that counts you among it best citizens, I beg you sir, add your voice to the cries of pain of all the Haitians of our islands, of the colonial land-owners living in France, and of the uncountable mass of Frenchmen who live off the commerce of the colonies. Consider that these colonies are France's destiny. Consider the sixty million [francs] profit from their exports each year, and the enormous importance of the income already lost. Consider that their capital of three billion [francs] is the sacred property of their owners, and that this capital is the security against the four-hundred million [francs] that they owe continental France. Consider that six million men live there along with eighty-thousand Frenchmen, and that half of France would be plunged into sadness and misery [if the islands were lost].

Signed, Monseron de l'Aunay. Chamber of Commerce of the Port city of Nantes, President of the Society of Friends of the Blacks

Source: Supplement to the Journal of Paris, vol. 362 (28 December 1789).
 

Based on Monserton de l’Aunay’s argument, the French concerns were influenced by which of the following?

A
Mercantilist principles of colonies benefiting the homeland country
B
Enlightenment thinkers' ideas of divine right
C
The monarch abusing his authority by mistreating the slaves
D
The reemergence of traditional Christian thinking regarding liberty
Question 4 Explanation: 
Enlightenment thinkers were not concerned about divine rights. Also, this document is targeted toward the National Assembly and the monarchy is not mentioned. The French also did not want liberty for the people in their colonies. Therefore the correct response is option A because it is pleading with the National Assembly to consider the wealth that the colonies bring to the motherland.
Question 5

You send me alarming news from our sugar islands, principally from Saint Domingue. The inhabitants of that island may all be currently being held at knife point by the Negroes in revolt.

Perverse men abuse the purity of your intentions, criminally interpreting the decrees of the National Assembly and making their treacherous plans undo what humanity and liberty have done for the happiness of its citizens in another hemisphere. In the name of this humanity, of which you are a worthy apostle, and in the name of the homeland that counts you among it best citizens, I beg you sir, add your voice to the cries of pain of all the Haitians of our islands, of the colonial land-owners living in France, and of the uncountable mass of Frenchmen who live off the commerce of the colonies. Consider that these colonies are France's destiny. Consider the sixty million [francs] profit from their exports each year, and the enormous importance of the income already lost. Consider that their capital of three billion [francs] is the sacred property of their owners, and that this capital is the security against the four-hundred million [francs] that they owe continental France. Consider that six million men live there along with eighty-thousand Frenchmen, and that half of France would be plunged into sadness and misery [if the islands were lost].

Signed, Monseron de l'Aunay. Chamber of Commerce of the Port city of Nantes, President of the Society of Friends of the Blacks

Source: Supplement to the Journal of Paris, vol. 362 (28 December 1789).
 

The tensions implied in this document would most directly result in which of the following?

A
The mass migration of slaves from Saint Domingue to France
B
The creation of faiths such as Vodou
C
The end of the French Empire
D
The independence movement by the inhabitants of Saint Domingue
Question 5 Explanation: 
Option D is correct because as tensions increase, slaves will rebel against the French to gain their freedom. Slaves will not migrate to France, voodoo had already existed on the island and France had other sources of income other than Haiti.
Question 6

Questions 6–8 refer to the passage below.

JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.
Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.
Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.
Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

Source:Cahiers, contenant les plaintes, Doleances, et reclamations des citoyens-libre et proprietaires de couleur, des isles et colonies Françaises (Paris, 1789).

-Grievance List (September 1789)
 

The list of grievances was caused by which of the following events?

A
The Creoles, Free blacks, and Mulattoes in Saint Domingue competing against one another
B
The French Revolution establishing a government based on enlightenment principles
C
The working conditions on sugar plantations becoming better over time
D
Knowledge of the Emancipation Proclamation’s passage into law in the United States
Question 6 Explanation: 
The List of Grievances concerns the rights of people, not rivalries between each group or brutal working conditions. Also the Emancipation Proclamation was passed after this document. Therefore option B is correct.
Question 7

JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.
Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.
Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.
Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

Source:Cahiers, contenant les plaintes, Doleances, et reclamations des citoyens-libre et proprietaires de couleur, des isles et colonies Françaises (Paris, 1789).

-Grievance List (September 1789)
 

The list of grievances above is best understood in the context of the French Empire’s tradition of

A
Encouraging the spread of indentured servants from Europe to replace local workers in the colonies
B
Forcibly removing white landowners in the colonies in favor of cheaper, less experienced minority groups
C
Maintaining the continued use the mit’a system
D
Favoring French-born rather than American-born individuals in official positions
Question 7 Explanation: 
Option D is correct because it is referring to the horrible treatment of Freemen that were not born in France. Creoles, free blacks and mulattos were not indentured servants and the mit’a system was in South America not Haiti. Also the Emancipation Proclamation was passed after this document.
Question 8

JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.
Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.
Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.
Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

Source:Cahiers, contenant les plaintes, Doleances, et reclamations des citoyens-libre et proprietaires de couleur, des isles et colonies Françaises (Paris, 1789).

-Grievance List (September 1789)
 

Using the document and prior historical knowledge, which of the following can be inferred about the social hierarchy in the French Colonies?

A
Mulattoes and slaves had equal status as the creole class
B
Whites were granted privileges and exemptions and predominantly employed in commercial and administrative roles compared to Mulattos
C
Mulattoes were not considered free, but wished to Declaration of Rights of Man to have the same status as creoles
D
Enlightenment ideas had already spread into the French Colonies which led the slaves to rebel against France
Question 8 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because mulattoes and mestizos were restricted while whites had many privileges. Slavery is not mentioned in this document. They were also lower in status than mulattoes and creoles. Option C is incorrect because the creoles wanted an elevated status.
Question 9

Questions 9–11 refer to the passages below.

Source 1:
“Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. There would be an end of everything, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals.. . . .”
-Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws 1748

Source 2:
“. . . The power of God makes itself felt in a moment from one extremity of the earth to another. Royal power works at the same time throughout all the realm. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Should God withdraw his hand, the earth would fall to pieces; should the king’s authority cease in the realm, all would be in confusion. . . . .”
-Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture 1609
 

The events described in source one represent a reaction against which of the following practices?

A
The Mandate of Heaven
B
The ineffectiveness of the legislative branch of the government
C
The weakening of the monarch's power
D
The court's abuse of the judiciary power
Question 9 Explanation: 
Option A is correct because according to the document the monarch abused its judicial power. Options B, C, D are incorrect because the branches of government were not separated, the monarch’s power was absolute and also the Mandate of Heaven has origins in Chinese practices.
Question 10

Source 1:
“Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. There would be an end of everything, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals.. . . .”
-Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws 1748

Source 2:
“. . . The power of God makes itself felt in a moment from one extremity of the earth to another. Royal power works at the same time throughout all the realm. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Should God withdraw his hand, the earth would fall to pieces; should the king’s authority cease in the realm, all would be in confusion. . . . .”
-Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture 1609
 

The argument in source two best shows which of the following ideas in history?

A
The power of the monarch was continuously challenged by the lower classes.
B
The ruler gave God his power.
C
Religion was the only means of political control.
D
Rulers used religious texts to legitimize their political authority.
Question 10 Explanation: 
Option D is correct because scripture is being used to give power to the king. The document does not mention rebellion and the monarch does not give his power to God. Also, the monarch’s power was absolute during this time.
Question 11

Source 1:
“Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. There would be an end of everything, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals.. . . .”
-Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws 1748

Source 2:
“. . . The power of God makes itself felt in a moment from one extremity of the earth to another. Royal power works at the same time throughout all the realm. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Should God withdraw his hand, the earth would fall to pieces; should the king’s authority cease in the realm, all would be in confusion. . . . .”
-Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture 1609
 

The two sources best support which of the following conclusions?

A
Western European society had advanced legal codes.
B
Religion was the only means to legitimizing the power of a ruler.
C
Institutions of government changed over time.
D
The nobility continued their attempts to hold authority over the monarch.
Question 11 Explanation: 
Source one does not mention religion as a source of authority and it also states the desire for a more complex society with advanced legal codes. Source two does not mention that nobility has any sway over the monarch. Therefore option C is the correct response because source two was written before source one.
Question 12

Questions 12–14 refer to the image below.

INSERT IMAGE HERE
The image above was created in France circa 1789  

The ideas reflected in the image were caused by which of the following developments in the 18th century?

A
Acceptance of the lower classes in their role in the social and political hierarchy
B
The technological advances in agriculture and the declining status of farmers
C
Free-market economic policies of a modern economy
D
The abuses of the church and state
Question 12 Explanation: 
Option D is correct because the image is showing the monarch and the church together at the expense of the state. The image is mocking traditional social and political hierarchies and does not show any clues that there wasn't a free market at the time.
Question 13

INSERT IMAGE HERE
The image above was created in France circa 1789  

Which of the following best describes the likely purpose of the artwork?

A
To criticize the of the estate system in France
B
To prepare the first estate to rise against the monarch
C
To encourage citizens to embrace their current social position
D
To promote support for independence movements to split france into the three separate countries
Question 13 Explanation: 
The bottom person in the image is unhappy and is supporting the other two men. Therefore option A is correct. Option C is incorrect because the first estate and second estate are together in the image.
Question 14

INSERT IMAGE HERE
The image above was created in France circa 1789  

Which of the following resulted from the publication of this artwork and works like it?

A
The involvement of the French government in the Seven Years War
B
The granting of religious freedom in France
C
The French empire abolished slavery in the colonies
D
Increased ethnic violence
Question 14 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because Napoleon, although pushed the Catholic Church, allowed Jews to move out of the ghettos and Lutherans to live unbothered. Options C & D are incorrect because France did not abolish slavery until 1848 and violence was along social class lines, not ethnic lines.
Question 15

Questions 15–16 refer to the passage below.

By the end of the 19th century Germany had advanced beyond Britain in terms of economic output. The prime reason for this was that Germany developed the newer industries, while Britain maintained a heavy stress on textile production. One of the most successful firms in Germany engaged in the manufacture of colours and pharmaceutical products, is the Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. of Elberfeld. This chemical works may be regarded as typical of a number of similar concerns engaged in the same branch of industry. The firm was originally founded by Friedrich Bayer in the year 1850 at Elberfeld on the banks of the Wupper. In 1881 it was registered as an Aktiengesellschaft [a Joint-stock company]' under the name Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. . . .

-Harold Baron. Chemical Industry on the Continent (1909)
 

The author’s point of view is best understood in relation to which of the following?

A
The advancements of the cotton textile industry
B
The establishment of quicker transportation methods, such as the railroads, to decrease cost of consumer products
C
The second industrial revolution
D
The large-scale transnational businesses that relied on various financial institutions
Question 15 Explanation: 
Option C is correct because Germany rises in status due to the second industrial revolution. By this time they had already advanced beyond the cotton textile industry. Option B is incorrect because it does not mention any transportation methods.
Question 16

By the end of the 19th century Germany had advanced beyond Britain in terms of economic output. The prime reason for this was that Germany developed the newer industries, while Britain maintained a heavy stress on textile production. One of the most successful firms in Germany engaged in the manufacture of colours and pharmaceutical products, is the Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. of Elberfeld. This chemical works may be regarded as typical of a number of similar concerns engaged in the same branch of industry. The firm was originally founded by Friedrich Bayer in the year 1850 at Elberfeld on the banks of the Wupper. In 1881 it was registered as an Aktiengesellschaft [a Joint-stock company]' under the name Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. . . .

-Harold Baron. Chemical Industry on the Continent (1909)
 

The excerpt provides evidence to support the argument that, in the nineteenth century,

A
Germany’s industrial status was constantly changing
B
Western European powers competed with one another through means of production
C
Nationalism increased around the world due to the creation of joint stock companies
D
Trade led to adverse living conditions for the working class
Question 16 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because Germany and England competed with one another. Option A is incorrect because Germany is only compared to England. Nationalism and poor living conditions are not addressed in the passage, so C & D are incorrect.
Question 17

Questions 17–19 refer to the passage below.

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacturer no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.

-Marx & Engels: Library: 1848: Manifesto of the Communist Party
 

Based on Marx and Engels’ argument, Communist ideals were most clearly a direct reaction to which of the following?

A
The discovery of America
B
The Columbian Exchange and its growth of global commerce
C
A guild's ability to take over industrial production
D
Capitalism and the factory system
Question 17 Explanation: 
Option D is correct because the author describes his dislike of the factory system and industrialism. The discovery of America helped various revolutions and the guilds no longer had power there; thus, both options A and C are incorrect. Option B is incorrect because the issue at hand is capitalism, not the Columbian Exchange.
Question 18

Questions 17–19 refer to the passage below.

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacturer no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.

-Marx & Engels: Library: 1848: Manifesto of the Communist Party
 

Using prior historical knowledge and the excerpt above, Marx and Engels were advocating for a government based on which of the following:

A
Divine Right
B
Anarchy
C
Absolute Rule
D
Communism
Question 18 Explanation: 
Marx was the father of Communism, therefore option D is correct. The author is advocating for the middle class to rise. The author also believes there needs to be a government to ensure equality, so option B is incorrect. Option C is incorrect because democracy leads to a capitalistic society.
Question 19

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacturer no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.

-Marx & Engels: Library: 1848: Manifesto of the Communist Party
 

Using prior historical knowledge and the document about, Marx and Engels were advocating for a governwnt based on which of the following:

Question 19 Explanation: 
The Qing society was highly rigid and failed to industrialize. The Spanish created more social classes and Japan had a feudalistic government. Therefore option A is correct because it was the most based on equality out of the four.
Question 20

Question 20 refers to the passage below.

The Combers being men and boys may possibly turn to some other work, but it is not so with the wife and daughters of the day-labourers, whose occupation in a country parish where no particular manufactory is carried on, must be within their own dwelling; who deprived of Woollen Spinning have no other employment, (except when they can go into the fields) to bring in any money towards the support of the Family. To tell a poor woman with three, four or five children, all under the age at which farmers will employ them to set her children to work, where no Wool is to be had is a mockery of misery, and if it is in a neighborhood distant from Machines, where some hand-work is still put out, the low price that is paid for her unwearied labour, of running with her children all day at the Wheel, disheartens her. The scanty fare it enables them to eat when the day's work is done, with want of firing makes her at length prefer breaking a hedge for her own fuel, and often for sale to the Village Tradesman, and bringing up her children to the same idle habits.

Many things combine to make the Hand Spinning of Wool, the most desirable work for the cottager's wife and children. - A Wooden Wheel costing 2s. for each person, with one Reel costing 3s. set up the family. The Wool-man either supplies them with Wool by the pound or more at a time, as he can depend on their care, or they take it on his account from the chandler's shop, where they buy their food and raiment. No stock is required, and when they carry back their pound of Wool spun, they have no further concern in it. Children from five years old can run at the Wheel, it is a very wholesome employment for them, keeps them in constant exercise, and upright: persons can work at it till a very advanced age.

-From Observations . . . on the Loss of Woollen Spinning (c. 1794)
 

This document regards which of the following changes in world history?

A
The modernization of the cotton industry.
B
The rapid development of steam-powered industry in European countries contributed to their presence on a global scale.
C
The need for wool production in colonies to increase work for children.
D
The development of the factory system that concentrated labor in a single location with specialization of labor.
Question 20 Explanation: 
This passage is concerning wool, not cotton, so option A is incorrect. There is no mention of steam-powered machines or where the wool was sold, so options B and C are incorrect. Option D is correct because women and children began doing very specific jobs in factories.
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