AP World History Unit 4 Practice Test: Transoceanic Interconnections

Our AP World History Unit 4 test explores transoceanic interconnections during the years 1450–1750. This unit covers the expansion of exchange, empires, and innovation, as well as changes and challenges to power and social hierarchies. Our free practice test reviews the most important concepts from Unit 4 to help you prepare for exam day.

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Question 1

Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below.

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
 

The information from the text above would most likely be used as evidence for which of the following arguments?

A
The development of domesticated animals led to the control of women.
B
Men’s status was gained through their economic contributions.
C
The reasons for European superiority in the Americas.
D
The increased use of domesticated animals increased the amount of food produced.
Question 1 Explanation: 
This passage does not discuss the status of women or men and the passage mentions a decrease in population, not an increase in food production. Therefore option (C) is correct because the Europeans rose to power because of their early exposure to diseases.
Question 2

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
 

Which of the following statements would best support the author’s claim regarding the phrase “first to fall victim”?

A
The spread of smallpox in Afro-Eurasia between the years 600 BCE–600 CE.
B
The enslavement of ⅓ of the Roman population in the classical era.
C
The forced migration of slaves across the Atlantic between the years 450 CE–1750 CE.
D
The spread of epidemic diseases in the Americas between the years 1450 CE–1750 CE.
Question 2 Explanation: 
Option (A) is correct because the smallpox spread in Afro-Eurasia was a direct result of domestication of animals. Both (C) and (D) happened after and were not the reasons for the “first to fall victim”. Option (B) is incorrect because the use of slaves was not a direct result of disease.
Question 3

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
 

Using prior historical knowledge and the passage above, which of the following areas was LEAST affected by the document’s main point?

A
East Asia
B
Sub-Saharan Africa
C
Central America
D
Europe
Question 3 Explanation: 
East Asia, Central American Natives and Europeans were all plagued with various diseases. Option (B) is correct. The Saharan, although affected by Malaria that originated from mosquitoes, was isolated from other diseases due to geography.
Question 4

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
 

The author’s argument in the passage is most likely a response to which of the following events?

A
The Bantu migration
B
The Columbian Exchange
C
The collapse of the Byzantine Empire
D
The spread of gunpowder across the Atlantic
Question 4 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct. The Columbian Exchange contributed to a longstanding spread of disease that made conquering Native populations easy. Although Europeans used gunpowder, disease played a larger role. The Bantu did not conquer Natives, and the Byzantine Empire did not fall because of disease.
Question 5

European demand for which trade item was a cause for the emergence of European presence in the Indian Ocean?

A
Slaves
B
Silver
C
Spice
D
Tobacco
Question 5 Explanation: 
Option (C) is correct because Europeans longed to be included in the spice trade. Before this they had been largely excluded. Europeans already had access to slaves, and silver and tobacco and were not driving forces.
Question 6

The transportation of sugar to Portugal led to which of the following?

A
The migration of Chinese immigrants to Europe
B
The increase of trade between Asian powers
C
The movement of American crops to Europe as a result of the Columbian Exchange
D
The development of slave labor in South America
Question 6 Explanation: 
The use of slave labor allowed for the large-scale production of sugar.
Question 7

During the 17th century, which of the following most directly impacted the change in quantity of goods traded?

A
The emergence of new military technologies such as the cannon
B
The discovery of gold in the Americas and Africa
C
The conversion of the American colonies to Christianity
D
The expansion of mercantilism
Question 7 Explanation: 
Options (A) and (B) are incorrect because they existed prior to the 1600s. The spread of Christianity had little impact on trade. Therefore option (D) is correct. Mercantilism impacted trade favorably.
Question 8

Question 8 refers to the image below.

Virgin of Guadalupe - Google Art Project

Based on the image and prior knowledge of the time period, which of the following can be deduced?

A
Rulers were thought to have influenced agricultural production
B
Men increased in status as Europeans entered the Americas
C
Rulers used religion to subjugate local populations in Africa
D
Syncretic faiths emerged in the Americas
Question 8 Explanation: 
Option (D) is correct because this image shows a blending of local traditions and Christianity. The image is from the Americas and does not show rulers' influence over agricultural production nor men in an elevated status.
Question 9

Questions 9–11 refer to the chart below.



A historian studying the time period of 1450–1750 would find the table above useful as a source of what information?

A
The spread of Buddhism across the Atlantic and Pacific trade routes.
B
The spread of diseases across the world.
C
The spread of new technologies and their impact on literacy rates.
D
The extent to which population policies affected Asia.
Question 9 Explanation: 
Option (B) is the correct answer because as disease spread in the Americas, population decreased. Buddhism did not spread along these trade routes and literacy rates are not shown with this set of data.
Question 10


Which of the following contributed most directly to the changes depicted in the chart that took place in the fifteenth century?

A
The Little Ice Age in Eurasia.
B
The conquest of the Aztec.
C
The spread of diseases to the Americas.
D
New food crops spreading to Europe.
Question 10 Explanation: 
Option (A) is correct because the Little Ice Age decreased Eurasia’s population in the 15th century. The other three options do not take place in the 1400s.
Question 11


What caused the population changes between the 1600s and the 1700s as seen in the table?

A
The forced migration of Africans.
B
The escalating spread of Christianity in the Indian Ocean.
C
The spread of new crops to the Americas.
D
The spread of diseases in Asia.
Question 11 Explanation: 
The chart does not reflect a rapid spread of Christianity or an increase in food crops in the Americas. Diseases did not spread to Asia during this time period. Therefore option (A) is the correct answer because the population decreases slightly.
Question 12

Questions 12–16 refer to the passage below.

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

According to the passage, Mosque most clearly reflects which religion?

A
Christianity
B
Judaism
C
Islam
D
Aztec religion
Question 12 Explanation: 
Although the term Mosque is typically referring to a place of worship in Islam, Islam was not in the Americas at this time. Therefore option (D) is correct. Mosque is referring to an Aztec temple.
Question 13

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

The passage shows which of the following changes in history?

A
The shift of power from priests to soldiers in the Spanish Empire.
B
The Spanish colonization of the Americas.
C
The development of torture techniques.
D
The movement of people across the Atlantic Ocean from the Americas to Europe.
Question 13 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct because as the Spaniards removed Natives as they colonized the Americas. Option (A) is incorrect because the Spanish crown is in charge. Torture had also previously been around and mass migration happened to the Americas, not from.
Question 14

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

Based on the excerpt provided and your prior historical knowledge, which of the following best describes the direct effect of the events described by the eyewitness?

A
The cultivation of silver in Northern Mexico
B
The collapse of the Aztec Empire
C
Clashes between different branches of Islam
D
The planting of new food crops such as the potato to aid the loss of Native populations
Question 14 Explanation: 
The Spanish during this time conquered the Aztec and created a new colony in Mexico, therefore option (B) is correct. Silver mining, Islam or the Spaniard’s planting new food crops did not happen at this time.
Question 15

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

The tone of this passage best reflects which of the following events between 1450-1750?

A
The organization of surplus labor
B
The spread of Christianity
C
Using religion as a source of power in the Spanish Empire
D
The militarism of European powers
Question 15 Explanation: 
Christianity is not mentioned in this passage and what is described will result in a decline in labor. Therefore option (D) is correct because the Spanish conquered the Aztecs through increased military presence with the help of new technologies.
Question 16

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

The interactions described in the excerpt are best understood in the context of which of the following?

A
The deforestation of the Mexico region
B
The development of the Columbian Exchange
C
Women gaining power in agricultural societies
D
The increasing tolerance and respect for local religions
Question 16 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct because the Spanish coming over started the Columbian Exchange. During this time, the region was already deforested by the Aztecs, women were not gaining power and Muslims and Jews were being expelled.
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