Unit 4 Practice Test

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Question 1

Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below.

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
 

The information from the text above would most likely be used as evidence for which of the following arguments?

A
The development of domesticated animals led to the control of women.
B
Men’s status was gained through their economic contributions.
C
The reasons for European superiority in the Americas.
D
The increased use of domesticated animals increased the amount of food produced.
Question 1 Explanation: 
This passage does not discuss the status of women or men and the passage mentions a decrease in population, not an increase in food production. Therefore option C is correct because the Europeans rose to power because of their early exposure to diseases.
Question 2

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
 

Which of the following statements would best support the author’s claim regarding the phrase “first to fall victim”?

A
The spread of smallpox in Afro-Eurasia between the years 600 BCE-600 CE.
B
The enslavement of ⅓ of the Roman population in the classical era.
C
The forced migration of slaves across the Atlantic between the years 450 CE - 1750 CE.
D
The spread of epidemic diseases in the Americas between the years 1450 CE - 1750 CE.
Question 2 Explanation: 
Option A is correct because the smallpox spread in Afro-Eurasia was a direct result of domestication of animals. Both C & D happened after and were not the reasons for the “first to fall victim”. B is incorrect because the use of slaves was not a direct result of disease.
Question 3

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
 

Using prior historical knowledge and the passage above, which of the following areas was LEAST affected by the document’s main point?

A
East Asia
B
Sub-Saharan Africa
C
Central America
D
Europe
Question 3 Explanation: 
East Asia, Central American Natives and Europeans were all plagued with various diseases. Option B is correct. The Saharan, although affected by Malaria that originated from mosquitoes, was isolated from other diseases due to geography.
Question 4

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

-Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
 

The author’s argument in the passage is most likely a response to which of the following events?

A
The Bantu migration
B
The Columbian Exchange
C
The collapse of the Byzantine Empire
D
The spread of gunpowder across the Atlantic
Question 4 Explanation: 
Option B is correct. The Columbian Exchange contributed to a longstanding spread of disease that made conquering Native populations easy. Although Europeans used gunpowder, disease played a larger role. The Bantu did not conquer Natives, and the Byzantine Empire did not fall because of disease.
Question 5

Questions 5–9 refer to the document below.

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

European demand for which trade item was a cause for the emergence of European presence in the Indian Ocean?

A
Slaves
B
Silver
C
Spice
D
Tobacco
Question 5 Explanation: 
Option C is correct because Europeans longed to be included in the spice trade. Before this they had been largely excluded. Europeans already had access to slaves, and silver and tobacco and were not driving forces.
Question 6

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

Based on the document above, the transportation of sugar to Portugal led to which of the following?

A
The migration of Chinese immigrants to Europe
B
The increase of trade between Asian powers
C
The movement of American crops to Europe as a result of the Columbian Exchange
D
The development of slave labor in South America
Question 6 Explanation: 
The use of slave labor allowed for the large-scale production of sugar. The other options are incorrect because the chart does not show Asian powers trading with each other and although Chinese immigrants were in Europe this was not a motivating factor. Sugar had also already been traded prior to.
Question 7

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

Which of the following was the most important reason for the formation of the new trade system presented in the document?

A
Asian demand for precious metals and European demand for luxury goods
B
European demand for labor and African demand for silk
C
African demand for manufactured goods and Asian demand for porcelain
D
The Middle Eastern surplus of labor and European demand for tobacco
Question 7 Explanation: 
Option A is correct because Asia needed precious metals for trading purposes and Europeans wanted luxury items. According to the chart, Africa did not have silk transported to it and Asia produced porcelain. The Middle East is not mentioned at all in the chart.
Question 8

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

Using prior historical knowledge and the information provided in the document above, who controlled the global circulation of goods?

A
The Chinese
B
The Europeans
C
The Africans
D
The Americans
Question 8 Explanation: 
The Europeans traded with the Americas, Africa and Asia, making option B the correct answer. Neither Asia nor Africa played a large role in the trade, and the Americans were killed or colonized by the Europeans.
Question 9

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

During the 17th century, which of the following most directly impacted the change in quantity of goods traded on the chart?

A
The emergence of new military technologies such as the cannon
B
The discovery of gold in the Americas and Africa
C
The conversion of the American colonies to Christianity
D
The expansion of mercantilism
Question 9 Explanation: 
Both options A & B are incorrect because they existed prior to the 1600s. The spread of Christianity had little impact on trade. Therefore option D is correct. Mercantilism impacted trade favorably.
Question 10

Question 10 refers to the image below.

Virgin of Guadalupe - Google Art Project  

Based on the image and prior knowledge of the time period, which of the following can be deduced?

A
Rulers were thought to have influenced agricultural production
B
Men increased in status as Europeans entered the Americas
C
Rulers used religion to subjugate local populations in Africa
D
Syncretic faiths emerged in the Americas
Question 10 Explanation: 
Option D is correct because this image shows a blending of local traditions and Chrisitianity. The image is from the Americas and does not show rulers' influence over agricultural production nor men in an elevated status.
Question 11

Questions 11–15 refer to the chart below.

INSERT CHART AND NOTE HERE  

Which of the following arguments is best supported by the data in the chart?

A
The establishment of new trade routes only impacted the Americas.
B
Afro-Eurasia experienced more rapid changes than the Americas due to the Columbian Exchange.
C
European monarchs influenced the global spread of silver.
D
The Christian faith spread quickly and dramatically from its origin point in Europe.
Question 11 Explanation: 
Option B is correct. The chart shows that in 1500 there was a rapid population change in Afro-Eurasia but the population of America remained stable. A is incorrect because America was not the only one impacted. European monarchy or Christianity are not mentioned in the chart.
Question 12

INSERT CHART AND NOTE HERE  

A historian studying the time period of 1450-1750 would find the table above useful as a source of what information?

A
The spread of Buddhism across the Atlantic and Pacific trade routes.
B
The spread of diseases across the world.
C
The spread of new technologies and their impact on literacy rates.
D
The extent to which population policies affected Asia.
Question 12 Explanation: 
Option B is the correct answer because as disease spread in the Americas, population decreased. Buddhism did not spread along these trade routes and literacy rates are not shown with this set of data.
Question 13

INSERT CHART AND NOTE HERE  

Which of the following contributed most directly to the changes depicted in the chart that took place in the fifteenth century?

A
The Little Ice Age in Eurasia.
B
The conquest of the Aztec.
C
The spread of diseases to the Americas.
D
New food crops spreading to Europe.
Question 13 Explanation: 
Option A is correct because the Little Ice Age decreased Eurasia’s population in the 15th century. The other three options do not take place in the 1400s.
Question 14

INSERT CHART AND NOTE HERE  

What caused the population changes between the 1600s and the 1700s as seen in the table?

A
The forced migration of Africans.
B
The escalating spread of Christianity in the Indian Ocean.
C
The spread of new crops to the Americas.
D
The spread of diseases in Asia.
Question 14 Explanation: 
The chart does not reflect a rapid spread of Chrisitanity or an increase in food crops in the Americas. Diseases did not spread to Asia during this time period. Therefore option A is the correct answer because the population decreases slightly.
Question 15

INSERT CHART AND NOTE HERE  

Which of the following was an important factor depicting the changes in population illustrated in the chart?

A
The global spread of universal religions.
B
The impact of humans interacting with their environment.
C
The industrial advancements of agriculture.
D
The decrease in pastoralism as a major mode of production in Afro-Eurasia.
Question 15 Explanation: 
Option B is the correct answer because humans are impacted by climate change, the introduction of new food crops and the spread of diseases. Religion, pastoralism and technological advancements do not cause the major changes in the chart.
Question 16

Questions 16–20 refer to the passage below.

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-One of the Spaniards with Cortés in Mexico, gave his eyewitness testimony.
 

According to the passage, Mosque most clearly reflects which religion?

A
Christianity
B
Judaism
C
Islam
D
Aztec religion
Question 16 Explanation: 
Although the term Mosque is typically referring to a place of worship in Islam, Islam was not in the Americas at this time. Therefore option D is correct. Mosque is referring to an Aztec temple.
Question 17

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-One of the Spaniards with Cortés in Mexico, gave his eyewitness testimony.
 

The passage shows which of the following changes in history?

A
The shift of power from priests to soldiers in the Spanish Empire.
B
The Spanish colonization of the Americas.
C
The development of torture techniques.
D
The movement of people across the Atlantic Ocean from the Americas to Europe.
Question 17 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because as the Spaniards removed Natives as they colonized the Americas. Option A is incorrect because the Spanish crown is in charge. Torture had also previously been around and mass migration happened to the Americas, not from.
Question 18

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-One of the Spaniards with Cortés in Mexico, gave his eyewitness testimony.
 

Based on the excerpt provided and your prior historical knowledge, which of the following best describes the direct effect of the events described by the eyewitness?

A
The cultivation of silver in Northern Mexico
B
The collapse of the Aztec Empire
C
Clashes between different branches of Islam
D
The planting of new food crops such as the potato to aid the loss of Native populations
Question 18 Explanation: 
The Spanish during this time conquered the Aztec and created a new colony in Mexico, therefore option B is correct. Silver mining, Islam or the Spaniard’s planting new food crops did not happen at this time.
Question 19

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-One of the Spaniards with Cortés in Mexico, gave his eyewitness testimony.
 

The tone of this passage best reflects which of the following events between 1450-1750?

A
The organization of surplus labor
B
The spread of Christianity
C
Using religion as a source of power in the Spanish Empire
D
The militarism of European powers
Question 19 Explanation: 
Chrisitanity is not mentioned in this passage and what is described will result in a decline in labor. Therefore option D is correct because the Spanish conquered the Aztecs through increased military presence with the help of new technologies.
Question 20

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

-One of the Spaniards with Cortés in Mexico, gave his eyewitness testimony.
 

The interactions described in the excerpt are best understood in the context of which of the following?

A
The deforestation of the Mexica region
B
The development of the Columbian Exchange
C
Women gaining power in agricultural societies
D
The increasing tolerance and respect for local religions
Question 20 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because the Spanish coming over started the Columbian Exchange. During this time, the region was already deforested by the Aztecs, women were not gaining power and Muslims and Jews were being expelled.
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