Unit 8 Practice Test

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Question 1

Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below.

Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to the dishwasher.]
Khrushchev: We have such things.
Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses. In America, we like to make life easier for women...
Khrushchev: Your capitalistic attitude toward women does not occur under Communism.
Nixon: I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do is make life easier for our housewives..... Our steel workers, as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.
Khrushchev: We have steel workers and peasants who can afford to spend $14,000 for a house. Your American houses are built to last only 20 years so builders could sell new houses at the end. We build firmly. We build for our children and grandchildren.
Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev, ​The Kitchen Debate​, (1959)
 

In the passage above, Nixon discusses the use of a dishwasher by American women. Which of the following characteristics of the American capitalist economy best explains this discussion?

A
The American economy benefited from federal support of labor unions
B
The American capitalist system promoted the purchasing of large scale industrial machinery
C
The newly developed techniques for advertising were effective in promoting the purchase of consumer products
D
The American free enterprise system fostered the emergence of a middle class that could afford to purchase consumer durables
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is option D. This option is correct because during this period, the US developed a strong free enterprise system developing a strong middle class that could buy goods such as dishwashers.
Question 2

Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to the dishwasher.]
Khrushchev: We have such things.
Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses. In America, we like to make life easier for women...
Khrushchev: Your capitalistic attitude toward women does not occur under Communism.
Nixon: I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do is make life easier for our housewives..... Our steel workers, as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.
Khrushchev: We have steel workers and peasants who can afford to spend $14,000 for a house. Your American houses are built to last only 20 years so builders could sell new houses at the end. We build firmly. We build for our children and grandchildren.
Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev, ​The Kitchen Debate​, (1959)
 

This passage is evidence of a major turning point in world history primarily because it shows

A
Shifted the pattern of pre-established American trade with Russia
B
It led to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the adoption of capitalism within the former Soviet countries
C
It slowly paved the way for a Soviet culture that supported some market reforms that allowed for private business
D
It marked a clear distinction over the fundamentals of Communism between Khruschev and Nixon for the first time in a public forum
Question 2 Explanation: 
In this passage, Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev engage in a heated debate about capitalism and communism in the middle of a model kitchen setup. The so-called “kitchen debate” made clear the differences between the ideology of capitalism and communism. Therefore, option D is correct.
Question 3

Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to the dishwasher.]
Khrushchev: We have such things.
Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses. In America, we like to make life easier for women...
Khrushchev: Your capitalistic attitude toward women does not occur under Communism.
Nixon: I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do is make life easier for our housewives..... Our steel workers, as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.
Khrushchev: We have steel workers and peasants who can afford to spend $14,000 for a house. Your American houses are built to last only 20 years so builders could sell new houses at the end. We build firmly. We build for our children and grandchildren.
Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev, ​The Kitchen Debate​, (1959)
 

The exchange between Nixon and Khruschev in the passage shows which of the struggles of the Cold War?

A
The political conflicts and ideological wars that occurred in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
B
The economic battle over a consumer economy based on private enterprise or a command economy based on large scale industrial production
C
The early formations of Marxist-Leninist doctrine in which an intellectual class of Communists must train the proletarians to develop class consciousness
D
The technological advancement of the Americans in the areas of mass industrialization
Question 3 Explanation: 
This passage does not show political conflicts or wars between different regions, and although economic issues are at the core of capitalism and communism, that is not the main idea of the passage. Therefore, option C is correct because it best matches the undertones of the conversation and shows a struggle of the Cold War.
Question 4

Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to the dishwasher.]
Khrushchev: We have such things.
Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses. In America, we like to make life easier for women...
Khrushchev: Your capitalistic attitude toward women does not occur under Communism.
Nixon: I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do is make life easier for our housewives..... Our steel workers, as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.
Khrushchev: We have steel workers and peasants who can afford to spend $14,000 for a house. Your American houses are built to last only 20 years so builders could sell new houses at the end. We build firmly. We build for our children and grandchildren.
Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev, ​The Kitchen Debate​, (1959)
 

In this passage, Khruschev states that American houses are “built to last only 20 years.” This is reflective of which Soviet critique?

A
American families strived to own homes in the suburbs
B
The American economy was based on “planned obsolescence” or the unnecessary purchasing of products by consumers to support the economic growth
C
The consumer economy was based on large scale industrial production that led to economic inequality
D
The US had failed to build suitable housing for its steel workers as a result of the decline in labor unions
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is option B because planned obsolescence is a business strategy in which the obsolescence (the process of becoming obsolete, that is, unfashionable or no longer usable) of a product is planned and built into it from its conception by the manufacturer. In this case it deals with housing.
Question 5

Questions 5–7 refer to the images below.

Source 1:
INSERT IMAGE HERE

Source 2:
INSERT IMAGE HERE  

Which of the following historical developments most strongly contributed to the political cartoon’s message in both posters?

A
The development of a political conflict led by JFK and Khruschev as a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis
B
The increasing threat of Soviet nuclear weapons for Southeast Asia
C
The development of government-funded nuclear programs making the world a safer place for democracy in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
D
The Americans were the only ones capable of controlling and limiting Soviet aggression in Asia
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is option A because both political cartoons focus their attention on JFK and Khrushchev and show escalating political conflict.
Question 6

Source 1:
INSERT IMAGE HERE

Source 2:
INSERT IMAGE HERE  

A historian would most likely use Poster 1 to research which of the following developments in the period 1900-Present?

A
The different propaganda methods that the United States used during times of war to help foster public support
B
The ways that the British government interacted with free-market economics
C
The influence of the monarchy in the British political system
D
The overexpansion of the British Empire, and its eventual downfall after WWII
Question 6 Explanation: 
The two political cartoons focus their attention on US and Soviet interactions and relations. Therefore, options B, C, and D are incorrect. Political cartoons such as these were used for propaganda purposes in the U.S. to further sentiments of war. Therefore, option A is the correct answer.
Question 7

Source 1:
INSERT IMAGE HERE

Source 2:
INSERT IMAGE HERE  

During this time period, which of the following was most directly a response to the messages expressed in the two images?

A
Ideological wars fought in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
B
Strategic Arms Limitations Treaties (SALT I and II)
C
The anti-war movement
D
Anti-globalization activism
Question 7 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because Strategic Arms Limitations Treaties were intended to restrain the arms race in strategic (long-range or intercontinental) ballistic missiles armed with nuclear weapons. This idea of controlling or limiting weaponry most closely matches the message of the political cartoons.
Question 8

Questions 8–9 refer to the political cartoon below.

INSERT IMAGE HERE
“Fall of the Berlin Wall” (1989).  

Conditions as seen in the image “Fall of the Berlin Wall” contributed most directly to which of the following?

A
An increase in the spread of U.S. military bases in places like Poland and other parts of eastern Europe
B
An increase in the rise of Communist party operations throughout eastern Europe
C
A decline in the use of American troops to spread democracy
D
The collapse of the Soviet Union by 1991 and the transition to a capitalist economy
Question 8 Explanation: 
Option D is the correct response because the photograph is an image of the Berlin Wall collapsing. This wall separated East Berlin and West Berlin and restricted the spread of Communism. The fall of this wall signified the end of the Communist Soviet Union.
Question 9

INSERT IMAGE HERE
“Fall of the Berlin Wall” (1989).  

What most directly caused what is seen in the image above?

A
The political reforms of Glasnost and the economic reforms of Perestroika
B
The increasing power of Soviet dictators during the late 20th century
C
The complete transition of the Soviet Union to a capitalist economy in the late 20th century
D
The corruption of the Soviet governments in urban centers
Question 9 Explanation: 
Option B is the correct answer. The question is asking for the cause of the image that depicts the collapse of the Soviet Union by 1991. This was caused by the increasing power of Soviet dictators during the late 20th century.
Question 10

Question 10 refers to the passages below.

Source 1:
“All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness”... Those are unalienable truths. Nevertheless, for more than eighty years, the French imperialists, abusing the standard of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, have violated our fatherland and oppressed our fellow citizens. They have acted contrary to the ideals of humanity and justice..."
-Ho Chi Minh, ​The Declaration of Independence of Vietnam, 1​945

Source 2:
"Yet if the Western world is still determined to rule mankind by force, then Africans, as a last resort, may have to appeal to (use) force in the effort to achieve freedom... We are determined to be free. We want education. We want the right to earn a decent living, the right to express our thoughts and emotions, to adopt and create forms of beauty. We demand for Black Africa autonomy (se and independence"
-Jomo Kenyatta, ​Challenge to Colonial Powers​, 1945
 

The statements of both Ho Chi Minh and Jomo Kenyatta share the same goal of:

A
using violence as a means of achieving freedom
B
breaking free from the chains of colonization to establish an independent nation
C
spreading the ideals of democracy across the entire region
D
avoiding a military conflict with the imperialists
Question 10 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because both passages discuss their dissatisfaction with their colonial rulers and their desire to obtain freedom for their people. They both show a similar goal of breaking free from the chains of colonization to establish an independent nation.
Question 11

Questions 11–12 refer to the passage below.

“It is true that South Africa was often brought to the brink of destruction because of differences... Since we have achieved our freedom, there can only be one division amongst us: between those who cherish democracy and those who do not! As freedom loving people, we want to see our country prosper and provide basic services to all. For our freedom can never be complete or our democracy stable unless the basic needs of our people are met...As we rebuild our country, we should remain vigilant against the enemies of development and democracy, even if they come from within our own ranks. Violence will not bring us closer to our objectives. All of us should ask ourselves the question: Have I done everything in my power to bring about lasting peace and prosperity in my city and my country? …”

-Nelson Mandela, ​On Reconciliation, ​04/16/1999
 

The excerpt best reflects an effort by Mandela to encourage:

A
unity and integration in a post-Apartheid South Africa
B
the landowning whites to give up some of their land
C
the enactment of socialist programs for all social services so as to make them dependent upon the government
D
the construction of a democratic political system based on the two party system
Question 11 Explanation: 
Nelson Mandela, “On Reconciliation” written in 1999 encourages the people of South Africa to create a united country centered on democracy. The context of this quote was in post-Apartheid and promotes integration. Therefore option A is correct.
Question 12

“It is true that South Africa was often brought to the brink of destruction because of differences... Since we have achieved our freedom, there can only be one division amongst us: between those who cherish democracy and those who do not! As freedom loving people, we want to see our country prosper and provide basic services to all. For our freedom can never be complete or our democracy stable unless the basic needs of our people are met...As we rebuild our country, we should remain vigilant against the enemies of development and democracy, even if they come from within our own ranks. Violence will not bring us closer to our objectives. All of us should ask ourselves the question: Have I done everything in my power to bring about lasting peace and prosperity in my city and my country? …”

-Nelson Mandela, ​On Reconciliation, ​04/16/1999
 

The ideas expressed by Mandela as a twentieth century world leader in the excerpt were most similar to those of which?

A
Mikhail Gorbachev
B
Ho Chi Minh
C
John F. Kennedy
D
Mahandas Gandhi
Question 12 Explanation: 
Option A is the correct response because Gorbachev supported democratic reforms. He enacted policies of glasnost (“openness”) and perestroika (“restructuring”), and he pushed for disarmament and demilitarization in eastern Europe. This is similar to the passage in that it focuses on rebuilding and providing for the basic needs of the people.
Question 13

Questions 13–15 refer to the passages below.

Source 1:
"​There are people who have hatred in their hearts for the British...​At the time when I am about to launch the biggest front in my life, there can be no hatred for the British in my heart...you should not resort to violence; that would put non-violence to shame. ​...My democracy means that everyone is his own master...Once you understand these things you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Moslems.”
-Mohandas Gandhi, “Speech to All India Congress” (1942)

Source 2:
"Decolonization is always a violent phenomenon... For if the last shall be first, this will only come to pass after a murderous and decisive struggle between the two forces.​ That affirmed intention to place the last at the head of things... can only triumph if we use all means to turn the scale, including, of course, that of violence. ...The native who decides to put the program into practice, and to become its moving force, is ready for violence at all times. From birth it is clear to him that this narrow world can only be called into question by absolute violence."
-Franz Fanon,” The Wretched of the Earth”, (2004)
 

The views expressed in the two passages were most directly caused by which of the following trends in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries?

A
The development of a human rights commission that all groups agreed upon
B
The governments of many developed Western countries adopted policies of economic liberalization and deregulation
C
The rise of extremist groups in power led to the attempted destruction of specific populations and to other atrocities, acts of genocide, or ethnic violence
D
Governments in Asia and Africa collaborated with dictatorial regimes to protect business interests of multinational corporations
Question 13 Explanation: 
Option C is the correct response because, although both passages refer to different places and different populations, it deals with the same issue: The rise of extremist groups in power led to the attempted destruction of specific populations and to other atrocities, acts of genocide, or ethnic violence.
Question 14

Source 1:
"​There are people who have hatred in their hearts for the British...​At the time when I am about to launch the biggest front in my life, there can be no hatred for the British in my heart...you should not resort to violence; that would put non-violence to shame. ​...My democracy means that everyone is his own master...Once you understand these things you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Moslems.”
-Mohandas Gandhi, “Speech to All India Congress” (1942)

Source 2:
"Decolonization is always a violent phenomenon... For if the last shall be first, this will only come to pass after a murderous and decisive struggle between the two forces.​ That affirmed intention to place the last at the head of things... can only triumph if we use all means to turn the scale, including, of course, that of violence. ...The native who decides to put the program into practice, and to become its moving force, is ready for violence at all times. From birth it is clear to him that this narrow world can only be called into question by absolute violence."
-Franz Fanon,” The Wretched of the Earth”, (2004)
 

The philosophy of human rights reflected in the two passages most directly contributed to which of the following?

A
The destruction of specific populations and to other atrocities, acts of genocide, or ethnic violence
B
The shift of human rights from the postindustrial countries of the West to the new manufacturing centers in Asia and Latin America
C
The strict enforcement of stronger measures to safeguard childrens’ rights in many developing countries
D
The adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and creation of of the International Court of Justice after World War II
Question 14 Explanation: 
Option D, the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and creation of the International Court of Justice after World War II, is the correct response because the fight for freedom and awareness of atrocities against different groups of people contributed to these international human rights agencies.
Question 15

Source 1:
"​There are people who have hatred in their hearts for the British...​At the time when I am about to launch the biggest front in my life, there can be no hatred for the British in my heart...you should not resort to violence; that would put non-violence to shame. ​...My democracy means that everyone is his own master...Once you understand these things you will forget the differences between the Hindus and Moslems.”
-Mohandas Gandhi, “Speech to All India Congress” (1942)

Source 2:
"Decolonization is always a violent phenomenon... For if the last shall be first, this will only come to pass after a murderous and decisive struggle between the two forces.​ That affirmed intention to place the last at the head of things... can only triumph if we use all means to turn the scale, including, of course, that of violence. ...The native who decides to put the program into practice, and to become its moving force, is ready for violence at all times. From birth it is clear to him that this narrow world can only be called into question by absolute violence."
-Franz Fanon,” The Wretched of the Earth”, (2004)
 

In the early twenty-first century, which of the following was most directly a critical response to the philosophy of human rights expressed in the two passages?

A
The US condemning countries with severe human rights abuses like North Korea and Iran
B
The justification to improve the lives of women in Afghanistan
C
The rise of extremist groups such as the Taliban in Afghanistan
D
The United States, under Donald Trump, withdrawing from the UN Human Rights Council
Question 15 Explanation: 
In the early twenty-first century the United States, under Donald Trump, withdrew from the UN Human Rights Council. This was a critical response to the philosophy of human rights expressed in the two passages.
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