Unit 9 Practice Test

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Question 1

Questions 1–3 refer to the image below.

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The data shown in the graph provided most likely contributed to which of the following?

A
The release of greenhouse gases and pollutants into the atmosphere sparked debates about the nature and causes of climate change
B
The rise of the Environmental Protection Agency as a result of the decreasing levels of greenhouse gas emissions
C
The universal adoption of the Kyoto Protocols by 2050 to reduce carbon emissions by half
D
The competition by humans over natural resources for the first time in the 21st century
Question 1 Explanation: 
Option A is the correct answer because the line graph is depicting data showing increasing global carbon emissions from fossil fuel. You can infer that this would cause debate over climate change.
Question 2

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

The data depicted in the image above was most likely a result of:

A
The rise of the United States as a world power
B
The increased innovations and technologies in the Globalization era
C
The complete transition of the Soviet Union to a capitalist economy in the late 20th century
D
The rise of China and India as world power in the late 20th century
Question 2 Explanation: 
The graph provided does not give specific information that would indicate the rise of the United States as a world power impacted carbon emissions, the economic transitions of the Soviet Union or the rise of China and India as world powers. Therefore the correct answer is B because new technologies have a direct impact on the rise of carbon emissions.
Question 3

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Which trend of the late 20th century could a historian use the data from the graph to support?

A
The rise of an environmental protection agencies and movements
B
The increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activity
C
The deforestation and desertification of large areas of Latin America
D
The collapse of environmental protection agencies dedicated to the environmental crises
Question 3 Explanation: 
Option B, the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activity, is the correct answer because there is a direct connection between carbon emissions and greenhouse gasses. Although related, the graph does not provide data on environmental protection agencies or deforestation.
Question 4

Questions 4–6 refer to the passages below.

Source 1:
“​The driving idea behind globalization is free-market capitalism – the more you let market forces rule and the more you open your economy to free trade and competition, the more efficient and flourishing your economy will be. Globalization means the spread of free-market capitalism to virtually every country in the world. Globalization also has its own set of economic rules – rules that revolve around opening, deregulating and privatizing your economy.”
-Tom Friedman, ​The Lexus and the Olive Tree, ​1999

Source 2:
"​For decades, the United States opened its economy — the largest, by far, on Earth — with few conditions. We allowed foreign goods from all over the world to flow freely across our borders...The United States lost over 3 million manufacturing jobs, nearly a quarter of all steel jobs, and 60,000 factories after China joined the WTO...But those days are over. We will no longer tolerate such abuse. We will not allow our workers to be victimized, our companies to be cheated, and our wealth to be plundered and transferred...​The United States has just announced tariffs on another $200 billion in Chinese-made goods for a total, so far, of $250 billion.”
-Donald Trump​, ​Speech to United Nations General Assembly​, 2018
 

Using the two excerpts provided, which common belief do both Friedman and Trump hold?

A
Government’s increased encouragement of free-market policies promotes growth
B
There are benefits from having a liberal free-market global economy
C
Economic institutions and regional trade agreements are fair for all nations involved
D
The system of globalization deals with economics at its core
Question 4 Explanation: 
Friedman argues that the driving idea of globalization is free-market capitalism. Trump argues that a free market global economy has hurt the United States financially. Therefore Option D is correct because the only thing these two excerpts have in common is that they deal with economics.
Question 5

Source 1:
“​The driving idea behind globalization is free-market capitalism – the more you let market forces rule and the more you open your economy to free trade and competition, the more efficient and flourishing your economy will be. Globalization means the spread of free-market capitalism to virtually every country in the world. Globalization also has its own set of economic rules – rules that revolve around opening, deregulating and privatizing your economy.”
-Tom Friedman, ​The Lexus and the Olive Tree, ​1999

Source 2:
"​For decades, the United States opened its economy — the largest, by far, on Earth — with few conditions. We allowed foreign goods from all over the world to flow freely across our borders...The United States lost over 3 million manufacturing jobs, nearly a quarter of all steel jobs, and 60,000 factories after China joined the WTO...But those days are over. We will no longer tolerate such abuse. We will not allow our workers to be victimized, our companies to be cheated, and our wealth to be plundered and transferred...​The United States has just announced tariffs on another $200 billion in Chinese-made goods for a total, so far, of $250 billion.”
-Donald Trump​, ​Speech to United Nations General Assembly​, 2018
 

Trump’s speech best reflects which of the following recent developments in globalization history?

A
Trade agreements between different local and global nations
B
The emergence of an “anti-globalization” movement in third world countries
C
The emergence of an “anti-globalization” movement in the United States
D
The growing popularity of free-market capitalism in modern countries
Question 5 Explanation: 
Option C is the correct answer because the Trump excerpt portrays globalization in a negative light. He states “We will no longer tolerate such abuse.” This contributes to the idea of an anti-globalization movement in the U.S.
Question 6

Source 1:
“​The driving idea behind globalization is free-market capitalism – the more you let market forces rule and the more you open your economy to free trade and competition, the more efficient and flourishing your economy will be. Globalization means the spread of free-market capitalism to virtually every country in the world. Globalization also has its own set of economic rules – rules that revolve around opening, deregulating and privatizing your economy.”
-Tom Friedman, ​The Lexus and the Olive Tree, ​1999

Source 2:
"​For decades, the United States opened its economy — the largest, by far, on Earth — with few conditions. We allowed foreign goods from all over the world to flow freely across our borders...The United States lost over 3 million manufacturing jobs, nearly a quarter of all steel jobs, and 60,000 factories after China joined the WTO...But those days are over. We will no longer tolerate such abuse. We will not allow our workers to be victimized, our companies to be cheated, and our wealth to be plundered and transferred...​The United States has just announced tariffs on another $200 billion in Chinese-made goods for a total, so far, of $250 billion.”
-Donald Trump​, ​Speech to United Nations General Assembly​, 2018
 

What was Friedman’s purpose in writing this book?

A
Explain the ever-changing and growing economy during this time period
B
Explaining the shift from an economy focused on manufacturing to one based on knowledge
C
Promote the benefits of a government who supports and actively encourages free-market policies
D
discourage market policies and economic liberalization of multinational companies
Question 6 Explanation: 
Option C is the correct answer because in this excerpt it is clear that Friedman is advocating for the benefits of a global economy. He states, “the more you open your economy to free trade and competition, the more efficient and flourishing your economy will be.” This gives us a clue as to the purpose of his book.
Question 7

Questions 7–8 refer to the passage below.

“​This is Globalization 3.0. In Globalization 1.0, which began around 1492, the world went from size large to size medium. In Globalization 2.0, the era that introduced us to multinational companies, it went from size medium to size small. And then around 2000 came Globalization 3.0, in which the world went from being small to tiny. There's a difference between being able to make long distance phone calls cheaper on the Internet and walking around Riyadh with a PDA (personal digital assistant) where you can have all of Google in your pocket. It's a difference in degree that's so enormous it becomes a difference in kind…
For UPS to work, they've got to create systems with customs offices around the world. They've got to design supply chain algorithms so when you take that box to the UPS Store, it gets from that store to its hub and then out. Everything they are doing is taking fat out of the system at every joint.”

-New York Times columnist, Tom Friedman, ​Why the World is Flat​, (2005)
 

What does Friedman mean when he states “the world went from being small to tiny”?

A
The internet provided more opportunities for people
B
The Green Revolution was an impetus behind the new globalization
C
Large-scale industrial production is necessary for the success of a consumer economy
D
The significant advances in technology reduced distance between nations which made it easier to share information and ideas
Question 7 Explanation: 
Option D is the correct answer to this question because when Friedman states that the world went from being small to tiny, he references technological advances that increased the speed of sharing materials. There is no mention of the Green Revolution or large-scale industrial production.
Question 8

“​This is Globalization 3.0. In Globalization 1.0, which began around 1492, the world went from size large to size medium. In Globalization 2.0, the era that introduced us to multinational companies, it went from size medium to size small. And then around 2000 came Globalization 3.0, in which the world went from being small to tiny. There's a difference between being able to make long distance phone calls cheaper on the Internet and walking around Riyadh with a PDA (personal digital assistant) where you can have all of Google in your pocket. It's a difference in degree that's so enormous it becomes a difference in kind…
For UPS to work, they've got to create systems with customs offices around the world. They've got to design supply chain algorithms so when you take that box to the UPS Store, it gets from that store to its hub and then out. Everything they are doing is taking fat out of the system at every joint.”

-New York Times columnist, Tom Friedman, ​Why the World is Flat​, (2005)
 

Which modern, post-Cold War development contributed to Friedman’s statement, “all of Google in your pocket”?

A
The rise in individuals owning sophisticated and technologically advanced devices such as cell phones
B
The economic conflicts related to the World Trade Organization (WTO)
C
The Middle East, during this time period, experiencing a new wave of economic globalization
D
The technological advancement of the Americans in the areas of mass industrialization
Question 8 Explanation: 
Option A is correct because in the term “all of Google in your pocket" refers to the Google app individuals use on their cellular devices. It can be inferred then that a rise in consumer ownership of cell phones would be accurate.
Question 9

Questions 9–10 refer to the images below.

INSERT IMAGE HERE

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

After closely analyzing both maps provided above, which of the following options best describes the cause of the depicted trends?

A
The spread of diseases globally had a large impact on the populations of different regions.
B
The development of government-funded vaccination programs were making the world a safer place for democracy in Asia, Europe, and Latin America.
C
Scientific developments in medicine were making significant advances in the United States.
D
Epidemic diseases spread evenly throughout the world.
Question 9 Explanation: 
The maps do not mention or show vaccine trends or which countries were promoting scientific developments. Also, both maps show that death rates are not spread equally across all parts of the world but instead are rather centralized. Therefore option A is correct because staggering death tolls have direct effects on populations.
Question 10

INSERT IMAGE HERE

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

In the twenty-first century, which of the following was most directly a cause of the second image?

A
Traditional values
B
Economic inequality
C
Political adversaries
D
Poverty
Question 10 Explanation: 
Option D is the correct response because the regions depicted on the second map suffer from extreme poverty. This poverty has a direct impact on access and quality of medical care to those suffering from malaria.
Question 11

Questions 11–13 refer to the passage below.

"Secondary school enrollment has increased but remains lower than primary school enrollment. Although gender disparities in access to secondary education have been reduced, they remain wider and more prevalent than at the primary level—to the advantage of boys in some countries and of girls in others. Gender disparities are even broader at the tertiary (college) level. Female participation in tertiary education overall has increased globally and currently surpasses male participation in almost all developed countries and in half of developing countries. However, women are clearly underrepresented in fields related to science, engineering, manufacturing and construction. Women are also underrepresented in the more advanced degree programmes, especially in science-related fields, resulting in fewer women than men in research. Women account for 30 per cent of all researchers—an increase compared to previous decades but still far from parity.”

-United Nations, ​The World’s Women, ​2015
 

Which of the following best matches the ideas presented in the passage above?

A
Mostly male students are given the opportunity to a primary education
B
Access to quality education and professional opportunities have improved for women but can still advance further
C
Traditional values in Asia have seen a dramatic decline
D
The political participation of women
Question 11 Explanation: 
Option B is correct because it most closely aligns with the ideas and statistics presented in the passage, which show that, despite small changes, women still have not achieved complete equality.
Question 12

"Secondary school enrollment has increased but remains lower than primary school enrollment. Although gender disparities in access to secondary education have been reduced, they remain wider and more prevalent than at the primary level—to the advantage of boys in some countries and of girls in others. Gender disparities are even broader at the tertiary (college) level. Female participation in tertiary education overall has increased globally and currently surpasses male participation in almost all developed countries and in half of developing countries. However, women are clearly underrepresented in fields related to science, engineering, manufacturing and construction. Women are also underrepresented in the more advanced degree programmes, especially in science-related fields, resulting in fewer women than men in research. Women account for 30 per cent of all researchers—an increase compared to previous decades but still far from parity.”

-United Nations, ​The World’s Women, ​2015
 

Which of the following statements could be used to describe a major turning point in history as described in the passage above shifted the pattern of gender roles in developed nations?

A
shifted the pattern of gender roles in developed nations
B
marked the transition from a multilateral to unilateral institution
C
It marks the first time that major institutions are making gender equality in education a primary objective
D
it describes how the United Nations intended to transform traditional societies into modern economies
Question 12 Explanation: 
The passage makes no mention of traditional vs. modern societies, multilateral or unilateral institutions or gender roles. Therefore option C is the correct response because it best reflects the main ideas of the passage and can be used to describe this major turning point in history.
Question 13

"Secondary school enrollment has increased but remains lower than primary school enrollment. Although gender disparities in access to secondary education have been reduced, they remain wider and more prevalent than at the primary level—to the advantage of boys in some countries and of girls in others. Gender disparities are even broader at the tertiary (college) level. Female participation in tertiary education overall has increased globally and currently surpasses male participation in almost all developed countries and in half of developing countries. However, women are clearly underrepresented in fields related to science, engineering, manufacturing and construction. Women are also underrepresented in the more advanced degree programmes, especially in science-related fields, resulting in fewer women than men in research. Women account for 30 per cent of all researchers—an increase compared to previous decades but still far from parity.”

-United Nations, ​The World’s Women, ​2015
 

As described in the passage, the arguments made by the supporters of women’s education were most similar to the arguments made in the early 21st century by supporters of

A
The equal pay movement dealing with gender equality
B
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
C
Laissez-faire economy
D
The environmental movement
Question 13 Explanation: 
Option A is correct because the equal pay movement dealing with gender equality most closely matches the education equality between genders as described in the text. With these similarities in ideologies, this is the correct response.
Question 14

Questions 14–15 refer to the passages below.

Source 1:
"​Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction."
-United Nations, “Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (1945)

Source 2:
“​I spoke before this body last year and warned that the U.N. Human Rights Council had become a grave embarrassment to this institution, shielding egregious human rights abusers while bashing America and its many friends...So the United States took the only responsible course: We withdrew from the Human Rights Council, and we will not return until real reform is enacted...For similar reasons, the United States will provide no support in recognition to the International Criminal Court. As far as America is concerned, the ICC has no jurisdiction, no legitimacy, and no authority...We will never surrender America’s sovereignty to an unelected, unaccountable, global bureaucracy.”
-Donald Trump, "Speech to UN General Assembly”, (2018)
 

Why is the second passage significant in representing a turning point in modern world history?

A
The US was continuing its legacy of being involved in foreign affairs in leadership positions
B
The US, under Donald Trump, was removing itself from world politics and as the established leader of human rights and world security since 1945
C
The rise of groups such as the Taliban in Afghanistan were opposing human rights
D
Globalization was changing the culture of nations
Question 14 Explanation: 
The purpose of the second passage was for President Trump to withdraw from the Human Rights Council, despite the U.S.'s history, until reform had been reached due to his disapproval of the U.N.'s action. Therefore option B is the correct response to the question.
Question 15

Source 1:
"​Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction."
-United Nations, “Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (1945)

Source 2:
“​I spoke before this body last year and warned that the U.N. Human Rights Council had become a grave embarrassment to this institution, shielding egregious human rights abusers while bashing America and its many friends...So the United States took the only responsible course: We withdrew from the Human Rights Council, and we will not return until real reform is enacted...For similar reasons, the United States will provide no support in recognition to the International Criminal Court. As far as America is concerned, the ICC has no jurisdiction, no legitimacy, and no authority...We will never surrender America’s sovereignty to an unelected, unaccountable, global bureaucracy.”
-Donald Trump, "Speech to UN General Assembly”, (2018)
 

Why is the first passage significant in representing a turning point in modern world history?

A
The adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and creation of of the International Court of Justice after World War II was universally accepted by all nations
B
Traditional societies transitioned and openly embraced the goals of human rights
C
The response was a critical reaction to the failed League of Nations after World War I
D
For the first time in human history, a major global institution is backing up the idea of equality for all people regardless of nation
Question 15 Explanation: 
Options A and B are incorrect because they focus on the acceptance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The passage instead focuses on supporting the fight for equality for all people by the passing of this Declaration. Therefore option D is correct.
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