Unit 7 Practice Test

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Question 1

Question 1 refers to the map below.

The British Empire in 1897

Territories in red on map include the Dominion of Canada; a portion of Greenland; territories in western, eastern, and southern Africa; India; Burma; Papua New Guinea; Australia; New Zealand; and a large number of island nations in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans.

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Cambridge University Library / Wikipedia  

The map can be evidence for which historical trend during the late nineteenth century?

A
Mass migration and urbanization
B
Industrial Revolution and diffusion
C
British hegemonic land and sea power
D
High levels of prosperity and productivity
Question 1 Explanation: 
Following the Napoleonic wars, Great Britian experienced relative peace around the globe for nearly a century. They acquired more land than any other European imperial power, which was made possible by their strong Navy.
Question 2

Questions 2–3 refer to the political cartoon below.

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Source: Punch Magazine, University of Michigan, WikiMedia Commons  

The political cartoon is best understood in the context of which statement?

A
The Ottoman Sultan was taken down by a military leader.
B
The Ottoman Empire was in a state of decline prior to World War I.
C
The Ottoman Sultan has absolute religious and political authority over citizens.
D
The Ottoman Empire initially fought World War I with the Central Powers.
Question 2 Explanation: 
Prior to World War I, the European Powers of Russia, France, and England recognized that the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was inevitable. The territory held strategic military and economic importance for each.
Question 3

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Punch Magazine, University of Michigan, WikiMedia Commons  

Which statement best explains the collapse of the Ottoman Empire?

A
The internal reforms known as the Tanzimat
B
The annexation of Bosnia by Austria-Hungary
C
The rise of Jingoism as a foreign policy strategy
D
The inability to pay debts following the Crimean War
Question 3 Explanation: 
The Ottoman empire experienced growth and success during the Tanzimat reforms. However, the massive debts incurred during the Crimean War and the country’s inability to pay them back made them vulnerable to internal threats. The Ottoman empire declared bankruptcy and then suffered several attempted coups prior to World War I.
Question 4

Question 4 refers to the political cartoon below.

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: L. M. Glackens, Library of Congress  

Which statement is most supported by the cartoon?

A
Imperialistic ambitions and expansion led to World War I
B
A Naval Arms race heightened tensions before World War I
C
A flawed alliance system was a main cause of World War I
D
Nationalism manifested in new technologies before World War I
Question 4 Explanation: 
Although the role of the naval arms race in sparking World War I has been debated by historians, the “No Limit” caption in the cartoon suggests that the cartoonist believed it would escalate to war in 1909.
Question 5

Questions 5 and 6 refer to the photograph below.

Background: Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment in France, July 1916.

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Ernest Brooks, WikiMedia Commons  

How did the event photographed above impact wartime technologies?

A
It facilitated the agglomeration of innovative corporate leaders.
B
It made it easier for the Axis Powers to obtain new technologies.
C
It led to the use of poisonous gas and the invention of gas masks.
D
It disrupted supply chains needed to distribute supplies to soldiers.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The Germans first used chlorine gas in an effort to break the stalemate caused by trench warfare. Initially gas was more of an irritant but over time new forms made poisonous gas a more deadly tool. The gas mask was invented as a result.
Question 6

Background: Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment in France, July 1916.

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Ernest Brooks, WikiMedia Commons  

What other military inventions were developed under similar circumstances?

A
Tanks
B
Tracer bullets
C
Hydrophones
D
Depth charges
Question 6 Explanation: 
Similar to gas masks, tanks were invented as an attempt to make progress through the stalemates created by trench warfare. Unlike soldiers, tanks could penetrate no man's land with less fear of machine gun fire.
Question 7

Questions 7 and 8 refer to the poster below.

British poster (1915)

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Printed by Sir Joseph Causton & Sons, Limited, Library of Congress  

What was the purpose of this poster?

A
To transition to paper-backed currency
B
To counter the results of hyperinflation
C
To engage the public in war mobilization
D
To support the post office as a new agency
Question 7 Explanation: 
World War I was a total war that required full use of each country’s resources and capital. In several countries, propaganda like this poster was used to engage everyday citizens in the war effort.
Question 8

British poster (1915)

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Printed by Sir Joseph Causton & Sons, Limited, Library of Congress  

The poster supports which comparative statement?

A
World War I and the Cold War are characterized by arms races.
B
World War I was Britain’s first total war, and World War II its second.
C
The media reaction to World War I was more favorable than the Vietnam War.
D
Propaganda was more widespread in World War I than during World War II.
Question 8 Explanation: 
World War I was a total war that required full use of each country's resources and capital. In several countries propaganda like this poster was used to engage everyday citizens in the war effort.
Question 9

Questions 9–11 refer to the passage below.

Background: Excerpt from a secondary source on Stalin’s Five Year Plan that was launched in 1928

In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. In agriculture, rather than adhering to the “lead by example” policy advocated by Lenin, forced collectivization of farms was implemented all over the country. This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms, bring the peasantry under more direct political control, and make tax collection more efficient. Collectivization brought social change on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861 and alienation from control of the land and its produce. Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants, leading to violent reactions.
Source: Boundless.com
 

How did Stalin’s response to the economy compare to the United States?

A
The Five Year Plan was modelled after the New Deal to stimulate economic growth.
B
The Five Year Plan and New Deal were both reactions to the Great Depression.
C
The Five Year Plan employed the tenets of socialism, whereas the New Deal exploited capitalism.
D
The Five Year Plan controlled the national economy, whereas the New Deal sought to influence it.
Question 9 Explanation: 
Countries around the world responded to the economy and the Great Depression differently. Prior to the Depression, Stalin started the Five Year Plan with the hopes of industrializing the Soviet Union to the strength of the United States, Great Britain, and Germany.
Question 10

Background: Excerpt from a secondary source on Stalin’s Five Year Plan that was launched in 1928

In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. In agriculture, rather than adhering to the “lead by example” policy advocated by Lenin, forced collectivization of farms was implemented all over the country. This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms, bring the peasantry under more direct political control, and make tax collection more efficient. Collectivization brought social change on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861 and alienation from control of the land and its produce. Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants, leading to violent reactions.
Source: Boundless.com
 

Which of the following additional pieces of information would be most useful in assessing the effectiveness of the Five Year Plan?

A
A Soviet peasant's diary
B
A map of Soviet collective farms
C
A speech by Stalin at the end of the five years
D
A data set on Soviet industrial output over time
Question 10 Explanation: 
The Five Year Plan was created to industrialize the Soviet Union. A dataset on industrial output over time would best demonstrate the degree to which they achieved this goal.
Question 11

Background: Excerpt from a secondary source on Stalin’s Five Year Plan that was launched in 1928

In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. In agriculture, rather than adhering to the “lead by example” policy advocated by Lenin, forced collectivization of farms was implemented all over the country. This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms, bring the peasantry under more direct political control, and make tax collection more efficient. Collectivization brought social change on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861 and alienation from control of the land and its produce. Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants, leading to violent reactions.
Source: Boundless.com
 

Why do historians consider the Great Famine in Ukraine a genocide?

A
International food exports continued throughout Ukraine’s Great Famine.
B
The Western world knew of Stalin’s actions in Ukraine and refused to intervene.
C
The result of Stalin’s anti-Ukrainian sentiments was an independence movement.
D
When Ukraine failed to meet collectivization quotas, Stalin withheld food from the people.
Question 11 Explanation: 
One part of the Five Year Plan involved the collectivization of farms. When farmers in Ukraine were unable to cultivate the land to meet their quotas, famines resulted leading to millions of deaths. Those peasants, called kulaks, who survived were then punished by Joseph Stalin who withheld their food. He also persecuted kulaks and sent many to Gulags (concentration camps), where they were forced into labor. Stalin’s intentional targeting of Ukrainian farmers is considered to be genocide by many historians.
Question 12

Questions 12 and 13 refer to the map below.

The German Empire (1919-1935)

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Chrischerf, WikiMedia Commons  

Which statement accurately describes the territories above following World War I?

A
The League of Nations divided German territories, giving most as mandates to France and Britain.
B
The Germans were able to control their territories abroad so long as they adhered to the Treaty of Versailles.
C
The former colonies of Germany were able to declare their independence and establish their own governments.
D
The colonies were divided regionally amongst the Allied powers: Africa to the U.S., Europe to Britain, Asia to France.
Question 12 Explanation: 
Imperialism was one major cause of World War I. The Allied Powers recognized that Germany was able to wage war for so long because of the power and resources gained from their empire. In an effort to punish them for war, the League of Nations divided their territories under the British and French mandate system.
Question 13

The German Empire (1919-1935)

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Chrischerf, WikiMedia Commons  

The map best illustrates which of the following continuities after World War I?

A
The resumption of nationalism
B
The continuation of Western imperialism
C
The prevalence of anti-colonial resistance
D
The use of diplomacy to deter war
Question 13 Explanation: 
Even though imperialism was a main cause of World War I, following the war the Allied Powers (and Japan) continued to assert their global influence in the post-war period through colonial acquisitions. Imperialism was later challenged after World War II when the United Nations called for an end to colonization and promoted self-determination.
Question 14

Question 14 refers to the map below.

Europe in 1939

INSERT IMAGE HERE
Source: Listowy, WikiMedia Commons  

What factor contributed most to the information on the map?

A
The appeasement of Hitler’s violations of the Treaty of Versailles.
B
The anti-semitic propaganda that was circulating about Polish Jews.
C
The tangling of alliances following the assassination of a world leader.
D
The mutual decision by Germany and the U.S.S.R. to wage war against the Allies.
Question 14 Explanation: 
The Treaty of Versailles stripped Germany of its ability to expand and greatly restricted its military. When Fascist leader Adolf Hitler rose to power, he launched a regime that employed aggressive militarism and nationalism. His imperialistic efforts were appeased by Great Britain and France, who believed war could be prevented by allowing Hitler to assume more land. The Invasion of Poland was the spark of World War II after appeasement failed.
Question 15

Questions 15 refers to the passage below.

What General Weygand has called The Battle of France is over. The battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilisation. Upon it depends our own British life and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of a perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, “This was their finest hour.”
“This was their finest hour” speech by Winston Churchill (June 18, 1940)
 

What excerpt most supports the claim that the purpose of this speech was to lift morale and mobilize for war?

A
"Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilisation."
B
"The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us."
C
"Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war."
D
"Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties"
Question 15 Explanation: 
War mobilization involves repurposing a country’s resources and capital to assist the military. Most often people think of supplies needed for soldiers (i.e. tools or medicine) as mobilization efforts. However, speakers like Winston Churchill demonstrated that boosting public morale for war was also a vital part of war mobilization. In this speech he makes emotional appeals to the British public to stand their ground against Hitler. The final sentence most supports the claim that this speech was intended to boost morale and mobilize for war because he asserts that it is every citizen’s duty.
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