Unit 3 Practice Test

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Question 1

Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below.

“​About a century before the capture of Constantinople, when Amurath I was on the throne, his vizier suggested to him that he had a right not only to one-fifth of the spoils of battle, but also to one-fifth of the captives. "Let officers be stationed at Gallipoli," he said, "and as the Christians pass by, let them choose the fairest and strongest of the Christian boys to become your soldiers." Thus was formed the famous corps of the Janizaries. To keep it up, the agents of the sultan went once in four years to all the Christian villages under Turkish control. Every boy between six and nine years of age must be brought before them, and the agents carried away one-fifth of the number, carefully selecting the strongest and most intelligent. The advice of the vizier was followed; the edict was proclaimed; many thousands of the European captives were educated in the Mohammedan religion and arms... Teachers come every morning, who remain with them until evening, and teach them to read and write. Those who have performed hard labor are made Janizaries. Those who are educated in the seraglios (living quarters) become spahis (cavalry) or higher officers of state.”

-James L. Ludlow, “The Tribute of Children” (circa 1514)
 

Which of the following characteristics of the Ottoman Empire best explains what the author describes in the passage?

A
The Ottoman Sultan was trying to reinstate the system of taxation in the rural areas
B
The Ottoman Empire was one of the strongest militaries in Eurasia, which made them engage in wars in eastern Europe
C
The Ottoman Empire was a cosmopolitan society in which all religions were tolerated
D
The Ottoman devshirme system of recruiting and converting Christian subjects to Muslims and training them for service as soldiers and bureaucrats
Question 1 Explanation: 
Option D is correct because this passage focuses how the Ottomans recruited Christian subjects to Muslims and trained them for service. This option describes the main characteristic mentioned.
Question 2

“​About a century before the capture of Constantinople, when Amurath I was on the throne, his vizier suggested to him that he had a right not only to one-fifth of the spoils of battle, but also to one-fifth of the captives. "Let officers be stationed at Gallipoli," he said, "and as the Christians pass by, let them choose the fairest and strongest of the Christian boys to become your soldiers." Thus was formed the famous corps of the Janizaries. To keep it up, the agents of the sultan went once in four years to all the Christian villages under Turkish control. Every boy between six and nine years of age must be brought before them, and the agents carried away one-fifth of the number, carefully selecting the strongest and most intelligent. The advice of the vizier was followed; the edict was proclaimed; many thousands of the European captives were educated in the Mohammedan religion and arms... Teachers come every morning, who remain with them until evening, and teach them to read and write. Those who have performed hard labor are made Janizaries. Those who are educated in the seraglios (living quarters) become spahis (cavalry) or higher officers of state.”

-James L. Ludlow, “The Tribute of Children” (circa 1514)
 

The author’s statement in the third paragraph that instructors “teach them to read and write” most directly refers to the Ottoman policy of

A
Educating the converts on Islam and the Koran so they could become government officials
B
Preventing Christian men that were captured from obtaining positions of high status in their government
C
Paying for inclusive schools that are welcoming of all religions with funds precluded from taxes
D
Promote a literacy movement for the religious minorities within the empire
Question 2 Explanation: 
The passage states, “Teachers come every morning, who remain with them until evening, and teach them to read and write.” This refers to the practices of teaching these captured men to read and write so that they would have knowledge of Islam and the Koran. Therefore, option A is correct.
Question 3

“​About a century before the capture of Constantinople, when Amurath I was on the throne, his vizier suggested to him that he had a right not only to one-fifth of the spoils of battle, but also to one-fifth of the captives. "Let officers be stationed at Gallipoli," he said, "and as the Christians pass by, let them choose the fairest and strongest of the Christian boys to become your soldiers." Thus was formed the famous corps of the Janizaries. To keep it up, the agents of the sultan went once in four years to all the Christian villages under Turkish control. Every boy between six and nine years of age must be brought before them, and the agents carried away one-fifth of the number, carefully selecting the strongest and most intelligent. The advice of the vizier was followed; the edict was proclaimed; many thousands of the European captives were educated in the Mohammedan religion and arms... Teachers come every morning, who remain with them until evening, and teach them to read and write. Those who have performed hard labor are made Janizaries. Those who are educated in the seraglios (living quarters) become spahis (cavalry) or higher officers of state.”

-James L. Ludlow, “The Tribute of Children” (circa 1514)
 

The process described by the author in the passage is best seen as an early example of which of the following?

A
The rapid expansion of the Ottoman Empire as a result of Suleiman’s conquests
B
The way in which Christian boys would be converted into Islam and become a member of the the Ottoman bureaucracy
C
The early formations of a Janissary corps independent of the Ottoman Sultans
D
The spread of religious diversity within the eastern territories of the Ottoman Empire
Question 3 Explanation: 
This passage does not make mention of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire or that the Janissary Corps were independent of the Ottoman Sultans. It also does not show a society that advocated for the spread of religious diversity. Therefore, option B is the correct response.
Question 4

“​About a century before the capture of Constantinople, when Amurath I was on the throne, his vizier suggested to him that he had a right not only to one-fifth of the spoils of battle, but also to one-fifth of the captives. "Let officers be stationed at Gallipoli," he said, "and as the Christians pass by, let them choose the fairest and strongest of the Christian boys to become your soldiers." Thus was formed the famous corps of the Janizaries. To keep it up, the agents of the sultan went once in four years to all the Christian villages under Turkish control. Every boy between six and nine years of age must be brought before them, and the agents carried away one-fifth of the number, carefully selecting the strongest and most intelligent. The advice of the vizier was followed; the edict was proclaimed; many thousands of the European captives were educated in the Mohammedan religion and arms... Teachers come every morning, who remain with them until evening, and teach them to read and write. Those who have performed hard labor are made Janizaries. Those who are educated in the seraglios (living quarters) become spahis (cavalry) or higher officers of state.”

-James L. Ludlow, “The Tribute of Children” (circa 1514)
 

How would a historian use this passage to describe the impact of this turning point in Ottoman history?

A
It changed the system and pattern of Ottoman trade with European Empires
B
It led to the Treaty of Chaldiran in which the Ottomans had defeated the rival Safavids
C
It showed that the Ottomans were skilled bureaucrats who had established complex administrative practices for military recruitment
D
It marked a clear divide between the ideologies and fundamentals of Sunni and Shia Islam for the first time
Question 4 Explanation: 
Option C is the best answer to this question because the passage outlines the ways in which Christian men would be captured and converted to Islam with the hopes that they would become officials in their military and skilled bureaucrats.
Question 5

Questions 5–8 refer to the images below.

Source 1:
Codex Magliabechiano (141 cropped)

Source 2:
INSERT IMAGE HERE
 

The ideas about religion and sacrifice expressed by both images are most consistent with which of the following?

A
The development of pre-Columbian civilizations with the aid and assistance of military alliances
B
The social belief in human sacrifice as a necessary means of pleasing the gods by pre-Columbian civilizations
C
The concept of fighting to protect religious tolerance within central Mexico
D
The rising belief by many locals that the practice of human sacrifice should be abolished
Question 5 Explanation: 
Option B is the correct answer. In both images, human sacrifice is depicted as a necessary means of pleasing the gods. We see this in how the individuals are holding the organs up to the sky.
Question 6

Source 1:
Codex Magliabechiano (141 cropped)

Source 2:
INSERT IMAGE HERE
 

Which of the options below would be a fifteenth and sixteenth century critique of the practices shown in the images?

A
The formation of democratic nations in Latin America
B
The construction of the Sun Temple
C
The Spanish conquistadors burning the Aztec manuscripts, because the Europeans felt the Aztecs were pagans and heretics
D
The use of human sacrifice at Tikal
Question 6 Explanation: 
Option C is the correct response because it most directly shows a critique of the practice of human sacrifice as shown in the two images. The Spanish conquistadors burning the Aztec manuscripts shows a direct reaction to those sacrifices.
Question 7

Source 1:
Codex Magliabechiano (141 cropped)

Source 2:
INSERT IMAGE HERE
 

Which of the following historical developments most strongly contributed to the image’s message for source 1?

A
The Aztecs were in constant warfare with the neighboring Mexican city-states
B
The pre-Columbian civilization had established complex social structures headed by a priest
C
The Aztecs developed a sophisticated tax collection system that involved tribute payments
D
The civilizations of the Americas established complex rituals for religious practices and sacrifice
Question 7 Explanation: 
Source 1 does not depict warfare with different city-states, complex social structures headed by priests or systems of tax collections. Source 1 does show complex rituals for religious sacrifice.
Question 8

Source 1:
Codex Magliabechiano (141 cropped)

Source 2:
INSERT IMAGE HERE
 

How could a historian studying the time period between 1450-1750 likely use source 2 in their research?

A
The manner in which complex civilizations were established and developed in Mexico
B
The ways that the Mayan people used human sacrifice as a way to appease the Sun God, and the roles that temples played in such rituals
C
The influence of transoceanic explorations from Europeans to the New World
D
The over-expansion of the Aztec Empire and its eventual downfall after the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Question 8 Explanation: 
Option B is the correct response because in the image, the individuals can be seen holding organs to the sun. This shows that the Mayan people used human sacrifice as a way to appease the Sun God.
Question 9

Questions 9–11 refer to the image below.

Ming coinage 14th 17th century

“Ming Dynasty bronze coinage in the early 17th century”  

Conditions like those shown in the image contributed most directly to which of the following?

A
The Ming Dynasty had a system of hard currency that was used to develop a complex tax collection system
B
The proliferation of numerous currencies used as legally recognized mediums of exchange
C
An increase in the rise of economic inequality among the scholar gentry
D
A decline in the use of Chinese currency throughout the region
Question 9 Explanation: 
The image shows bronze coins used in the Ming Dynasty in the early 17th century. This shows that the Ming Dynasty had a system of hard currency that was used to develop a tax collecting system. Therefore, option A is the correct response.
Question 10

Ming coinage 14th 17th century

“Ming Dynasty bronze coinage in the early 17th century”  

The conditions shown in the image depict which of the following trends in Chinese society from 1450 to 1750?

A
The Chinese economy was based on hard currency used for trade and taxation purposes
B
The decline of Confucian ethics in society
C
The use of economic power as a tool to expand the empire
D
The struggle between the nomadic and settled ways of life
Question 10 Explanation: 
Option A is the correct response because the artifact, hard currency, shows that the Chinese economy was based on hard currency used for trade and taxation purposes. It does not mention Confucian ethics, expanding the empire through use of economic power, or nomadic and settled living.
Question 11

Ming coinage 14th 17th century

“Ming Dynasty bronze coinage in the early 17th century”  

The artifacts pictured above were used most by the Chinese for what?

A
Resisting European imperial gains throughout the Asian continent
B
Formalizing a tax collection system based on hard currency
C
Symbolizing the strength and power of the Qing political elite
D
Purchasing European goods in large quantities for the rural populations in China
Question 11 Explanation: 
Option B is the correct response because the bronze coins were created and used by the Ming Dynasty for the purpose of developing a tax collection system. This would help fund different projects in the Dynasty.
Question 12

Questions 12–14 refer to the passages below.

Source 1:
"​It has been heard repeatedly that you have subjected the upright community of Muhammad (Prayers and salutations upon its founder!) to your devious will, that you have undermined the firm foundation of the Faith, that you have unfurled the banner of oppression in the cause of aggression, that you no longer uphold the commandments and prohibitions of the Divine Law, that you have incited your abominable Shi`i faction to unsanctified sexual union and to the shedding of innocent blood [reference to uncanonical practices, such as temporary marriage].”
-Ottoman Sultan, Selim I, “Letter to Savavid Shah, Ismail”, (circa 1514)

Source 2:
"Sultan Selim Shah (God grant him immortal state and eternal happiness!) accepted this affectionate greeting and this friendly letter, considering it a token of our good will...At this writing we were engaged upon the hunt near Isfahan; we now prepare provisions and our troops for the coming campaign. In all friendship we say do what you will...He who falls upon the house of `Ali always falls...”
-Shah Ismail, “Response Letter to Sultan Selim I, (circa 1514)
 

What do both statements from the Muslim rulers above have in common?

A
They encouraged citizens from their own countries to fulfill their patriotic duties by volunteering to fight
B
They used religion to legitimize their claims to the throne before the Battle of Chaldiran
C
Maintaining the Janissary corps as an effective fighting force against the Mughals
D
Using the Koran as a way to gain support from the Sunni Muslims in the region
Question 12 Explanation: 
Both passages show how the rulers used religion to legitimize their claims to the throne, whether for positive or negative reasons. Therefore, the correct response to this question is option B.
Question 13

Source 1:
"​It has been heard repeatedly that you have subjected the upright community of Muhammad (Prayers and salutations upon its founder!) to your devious will, that you have undermined the firm foundation of the Faith, that you have unfurled the banner of oppression in the cause of aggression, that you no longer uphold the commandments and prohibitions of the Divine Law, that you have incited your abominable Shi`i faction to unsanctified sexual union and to the shedding of innocent blood [reference to uncanonical practices, such as temporary marriage].”
-Ottoman Sultan, Selim I, “Letter to Savavid Shah, Ismail”, (circa 1514)

Source 2:
"Sultan Selim Shah (God grant him immortal state and eternal happiness!) accepted this affectionate greeting and this friendly letter, considering it a token of our good will...At this writing we were engaged upon the hunt near Isfahan; we now prepare provisions and our troops for the coming campaign. In all friendship we say do what you will...He who falls upon the house of `Ali always falls...”
-Shah Ismail, “Response Letter to Sultan Selim I, (circa 1514)
 

What was the purpose of the Ottoman Sultan Selim in writing the first writing?

A
To gain support from his council of Shia advisers after the Battle of Chaldiran
B
To protect the religious interests of the Janissary corps in a multiethnic empire
C
To legitimize his claim to the throne as a Sunni Muslim and demonstrate that the Safavids were illegitimate Muslims for violating various Islamic customs
D
To limit the expansionist policies of the Ottoman Empire in the age of land-based empires
Question 13 Explanation: 
In the first passage, Ottoman Sultan Selim I is trying to show that he has a legitimate claim to the throne because his counterparts are violating various Islamic customs such as the commandments of the Divine Law. Therefore, option C is correct.
Question 14

Source 1:
"​It has been heard repeatedly that you have subjected the upright community of Muhammad (Prayers and salutations upon its founder!) to your devious will, that you have undermined the firm foundation of the Faith, that you have unfurled the banner of oppression in the cause of aggression, that you no longer uphold the commandments and prohibitions of the Divine Law, that you have incited your abominable Shi`i faction to unsanctified sexual union and to the shedding of innocent blood [reference to uncanonical practices, such as temporary marriage].”
-Ottoman Sultan, Selim I, “Letter to Savavid Shah, Ismail”, (circa 1514)

Source 2:
"Sultan Selim Shah (God grant him immortal state and eternal happiness!) accepted this affectionate greeting and this friendly letter, considering it a token of our good will...At this writing we were engaged upon the hunt near Isfahan; we now prepare provisions and our troops for the coming campaign. In all friendship we say do what you will...He who falls upon the house of `Ali always falls...”
-Shah Ismail, “Response Letter to Sultan Selim I, (circa 1514)
 

The ideologies presented in the two passages were most directly caused by which of the following historical trends among Islamic empires between 1450-1750?

A
The Islamic empires were all unified under the banner of Islam, and chose only to fight and attack non-Muslims
B
All of the Islamic empires of this time constructed large architectural monuments in order to legitimate their rule among society and solidify their power in their empire
C
These empires used Islam to justify their claims to the throne and lead their troops into battle against other Muslim empires
D
They almost always found peaceful solutions to war as a result of their advanced system of bureaucracy and diplomacy
Question 14 Explanation: 
Option C is the correct response because this option focuses on not only these rulers leading their troops in the fight against other Muslim empires and people, but more importantly, that religion is used to justify the rightful claims to the land.
Question 15

Questions 15–17 refer to the passage below.

“​Works of piety and love are infinitely better than indulgences, and yet these are not preached with such ceremony or such zeal; nay, for the sake of preaching the indulgences they are kept quiet, though it is the first and the sole duty of all bishops that the people should learn the Gospel and the love of Christ, for Christ never taught that indulgences should be preached. How great then is the horror, how great the peril of a bishop, if he permits the Gospel to be kept quiet, and nothing but the noise of indulgences to be spread among his people! Will not Christ say to them, "straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel"? In addition to this, Most Reverend Father in the Lord, it is said in the Instruction to the Commissaries which is issued under your name, Most Reverend Father (doubtless without your knowledge and consent), that one of the chief graces of indulgence is that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God, and all the penalties of purgatory are destroyed. Again, it is said that contrition is not necessary in those who purchase souls [out of purgatory] or buy confessionalia.”

-Martin Luther, “Letter to the Archbishop of Mainz”, (1517)
 

The events described in the passage are best seen as an early example of which of the following?

A
The formation of the Protestant Reformation in which the Catholic Church was criticized for its sale of indulgences
B
The enhanced power of the Catholic clergy over political elite in Europe
C
The growing influence of the printing press on rural societies across western Europe
D
The declining political power of European elites as a result of the English Reformation
Question 15 Explanation: 
Option A is the correct response because Martin Luther’s letter to the Archbishop Mainz outlines the development of the formation of the Protestant Reformation based off the critique of the Catholic Church.
Question 16

“​Works of piety and love are infinitely better than indulgences, and yet these are not preached with such ceremony or such zeal; nay, for the sake of preaching the indulgences they are kept quiet, though it is the first and the sole duty of all bishops that the people should learn the Gospel and the love of Christ, for Christ never taught that indulgences should be preached. How great then is the horror, how great the peril of a bishop, if he permits the Gospel to be kept quiet, and nothing but the noise of indulgences to be spread among his people! Will not Christ say to them, "straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel"? In addition to this, Most Reverend Father in the Lord, it is said in the Instruction to the Commissaries which is issued under your name, Most Reverend Father (doubtless without your knowledge and consent), that one of the chief graces of indulgence is that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God, and all the penalties of purgatory are destroyed. Again, it is said that contrition is not necessary in those who purchase souls [out of purgatory] or buy confessionalia.”

-Martin Luther, “Letter to the Archbishop of Mainz”, (1517)
 

Which of the following European historical trends most likely contributed to the passage?

A
The effects of the Spanish Inquisition on the religious minorities of Europe
B
With new advancements in scientific thought and philosophical inquiry, the Catholic Church experienced a decline in ability to maintain legitimacy over all Christians
C
The governments of many developed Western countries adopted policies of religious toleration and acceptance
D
The abolition of monarchies across Europe and the establishment of democratic governments based on Enlightenment philosophies
Question 16 Explanation: 
With new advances in science and philosophical thought, that Catholic Church struggled to maintain legitimacy and control over its followers. This led to the ideas of Martin Luther shown in the letter to the Archbishop of Mainz. Therefore, option B is the correct response.
Question 17

“​Works of piety and love are infinitely better than indulgences, and yet these are not preached with such ceremony or such zeal; nay, for the sake of preaching the indulgences they are kept quiet, though it is the first and the sole duty of all bishops that the people should learn the Gospel and the love of Christ, for Christ never taught that indulgences should be preached. How great then is the horror, how great the peril of a bishop, if he permits the Gospel to be kept quiet, and nothing but the noise of indulgences to be spread among his people! Will not Christ say to them, "straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel"? In addition to this, Most Reverend Father in the Lord, it is said in the Instruction to the Commissaries which is issued under your name, Most Reverend Father (doubtless without your knowledge and consent), that one of the chief graces of indulgence is that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to God, and all the penalties of purgatory are destroyed. Again, it is said that contrition is not necessary in those who purchase souls [out of purgatory] or buy confessionalia.”

-Martin Luther, “Letter to the Archbishop of Mainz”, (1517)
 

A historian might argue that the events described in the passage reflected a turning point in world history primarily because

A
it showed how the Enlightenment ideals had been first put into practice in Europe
B
it marked the transition from a religious European society to a secular society
C
it triggered the start of the Protestant Reformation and the English Reformation
D
it led to a Catholic Counter Reformation in which the Pope attempted to reassert his legitimacy
Question 17 Explanation: 
Option C is the correct response because Martin Luther’s letter to the Archbishop Mainz outlines the development of the formation of the Protestant Reformation based off the critique of the Catholic Church.
Question 18

Questions 18–20 refer to the images below.

Source 1:

The garden façade of the Palace of Versailles in 1674. The terrace was later replaced by the Hall of Mirrors.

Source 2:
Bird's Eye View of the Taj Mahal at Agra
18th-century view of the Taj Mahal with the Moonlight garden shown at the top of the page.  

What caused the trends depicted in the images for land-based empires 1450-1750?

A
Divine Right of Kings
B
The political philosophy that any family member could rule the throne
C
The governments of many land-based empires relied on military expansion and trade
D
The rulers built large architectural structures and monuments as a way to legitimate their power
Question 18 Explanation: 
Option D is the correct response. The two images show large architectural structures and buildings. These are created in order to legitimize rulers' power and show that they are strong, powerful leaders.
Question 19

Source 1:

The garden façade of the Palace of Versailles in 1674. The terrace was later replaced by the Hall of Mirrors.

Source 2:
Bird's Eye View of the Taj Mahal at Agra
18th-century view of the Taj Mahal with the Moonlight garden shown at the top of the page.  

Which of the following responses would most closely represent a critique to the first image?

A
The French colonization of its various territories
B
The French Revolution and the beheading of King Louis XVI
C
The rise of nationalism
D
The Industrial Revolution
Question 19 Explanation: 
Source 1 depicts the garden façade of the Palace of Versailles in 1674. Therefore, option B is the correct response because it best shows evidence of the French Revolution and the beheading of King Louis XVI.
Question 20

Source 1:

The garden façade of the Palace of Versailles in 1674. The terrace was later replaced by the Hall of Mirrors.

Source 2:
Bird's Eye View of the Taj Mahal at Agra
18th-century view of the Taj Mahal with the Moonlight garden shown at the top of the page.  

Which option best describes the effects of the massive architectural buildings depicted in the images to the everyday masses?

A
The rulers of land-based empires lived in luxurious palaces whereas the peasant masses often lived in poor rural conditions
B
The overthrow of social classes in all land based empires
C
The shift of trade patterns from Asia to Europe
D
The adoption of the Divine Right of Kings
Question 20 Explanation: 
Option A is the correct response because it shows the irony of the time. During this time, rulers of these empires lived in lavish palaces and the lower classes often lived in poor rural conditions. This revealed a true societal problem.
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