Unit 2 Practice Test

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Question 1

Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below.

“​On Fridays, if a man does not go early to the mosque, he cannot find a corner to pray in, on account of the crowd. It is a custom of theirs to send each man his boy [to the mosque] with his prayer-mat; the boy spreads it out for his master in a place befitting him [and remains on it] until he comes to the mosque. Their prayer-mats are made of the leaves of a tree resembling a date-palm, but without fruit.
Another of their good qualities is their habit of wearing clean white garments on Fridays. Even if a man has nothing but an old worn shirt, he washes it and cleans it, and wears it to the Friday service. Yet another is their zeal for learning the Koran by heart. They put their children in chains if they show any backwardness in memorizing it, and they are not set free until they have it by heart. I visited the qadi in his house on the day of the festival. His children were chained up, so I said to him, "Will you not let them loose?" He replied, "I shall not do so until they learn the Koran by heart.”

The 14th century traveler Ibn Battuta, “On the Customs of Mali” (circa 1430s)
 

Which of the following aspects of the Mali Empire best explains why Ibn Battuta was fascinated with it as discussed in the passage?

A
The Mali Empire was trying to reinstate the Muslim tradition of jizya in the rural areas
B
The Mali Empire had welcomed Islam as the dominant religion in the empire and was the hub of Islamic culture in West Africa during this time
C
The Mali Empire was one of the strongest militaries in Africa, which made them adopt Islam in the region
D
The Muslim rulers of Mali had established laws based on local African laws and customs
Question 1 Explanation: 
Jizya was a tax paid by non-Muslim populations to their Muslim rulers. The passage also makes no mention of military influence and instead focuses on the integration of Islamic practices. Therefore answer B is correct.
Question 2

“​On Fridays, if a man does not go early to the mosque, he cannot find a corner to pray in, on account of the crowd. It is a custom of theirs to send each man his boy [to the mosque] with his prayer-mat; the boy spreads it out for his master in a place befitting him [and remains on it] until he comes to the mosque. Their prayer-mats are made of the leaves of a tree resembling a date-palm, but without fruit.
Another of their good qualities is their habit of wearing clean white garments on Fridays. Even if a man has nothing but an old worn shirt, he washes it and cleans it, and wears it to the Friday service. Yet another is their zeal for learning the Koran by heart. They put their children in chains if they show any backwardness in memorizing it, and they are not set free until they have it by heart. I visited the qadi in his house on the day of the festival. His children were chained up, so I said to him, "Will you not let them loose?" He replied, "I shall not do so until they learn the Koran by heart.”

The 14th century traveler Ibn Battuta, “On the Customs of Mali” (circa 1430s)
 

Ibn Battuta’s statement “Another one of their good qualities” reflects Battuta’s belief that

A
One characteristic of a favorable society was that it practiced Orthodox Islamic cultural practices and traditions
B
All good societies have strict customs and traditions, no matter what religion they practice
C
The parents have a close relationship with the children and are heavily involved in their education
D
Islam promoted cross-cultural trade across the Sahara desert
Question 2 Explanation: 
The statement “Another one of their good qualities” is referring to the orthodox practice of wearing clean white garments on Friday. Therefore option A is the correct answer.
Question 3

“​On Fridays, if a man does not go early to the mosque, he cannot find a corner to pray in, on account of the crowd. It is a custom of theirs to send each man his boy [to the mosque] with his prayer-mat; the boy spreads it out for his master in a place befitting him [and remains on it] until he comes to the mosque. Their prayer-mats are made of the leaves of a tree resembling a date-palm, but without fruit.
Another of their good qualities is their habit of wearing clean white garments on Fridays. Even if a man has nothing but an old worn shirt, he washes it and cleans it, and wears it to the Friday service. Yet another is their zeal for learning the Koran by heart. They put their children in chains if they show any backwardness in memorizing it, and they are not set free until they have it by heart. I visited the qadi in his house on the day of the festival. His children were chained up, so I said to him, "Will you not let them loose?" He replied, "I shall not do so until they learn the Koran by heart.”

The 14th century traveler Ibn Battuta, “On the Customs of Mali” (circa 1430s)
 

The practices described by Ibn Battuta in the passage above are an example of which of the following?

A
The rapid state building process in West African societies as a result of Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca
B
The growing impact of Sufism and the spread of Islam into western Africa
C
The cross-cultural interactions that occurred as a result of the Trans-Saharan trade routes
D
The origins of the Mali Empire as the center of cross cultural-trade in the region
Question 3 Explanation: 
Option B is the correct response because the growing impact of Sufism and the spread of Islam into western Africa left a prevailing impact on religious, cultural, and social life. The passage does not mention cross-cultural practices and trade or state building.
Question 4

“​On Fridays, if a man does not go early to the mosque, he cannot find a corner to pray in, on account of the crowd. It is a custom of theirs to send each man his boy [to the mosque] with his prayer-mat; the boy spreads it out for his master in a place befitting him [and remains on it] until he comes to the mosque. Their prayer-mats are made of the leaves of a tree resembling a date-palm, but without fruit.
Another of their good qualities is their habit of wearing clean white garments on Fridays. Even if a man has nothing but an old worn shirt, he washes it and cleans it, and wears it to the Friday service. Yet another is their zeal for learning the Koran by heart. They put their children in chains if they show any backwardness in memorizing it, and they are not set free until they have it by heart. I visited the qadi in his house on the day of the festival. His children were chained up, so I said to him, "Will you not let them loose?" He replied, "I shall not do so until they learn the Koran by heart.”

The 14th century traveler Ibn Battuta, “On the Customs of Mali” (circa 1430s)
 

This account of traveler Ibn Battuta would be useful when studying

A
The restrictions of the gold-salt trade in western Africa
B
How Muslim travelers viewed the practices and customs of local Africans as inferior
C
The introduction of Islamic technology through trade
D
The extent to which Islamic traditions and practices penetrated into African societies
Question 4 Explanation: 
Option D is the best answer because the excerpt describes the extent to which Islamic traditions and practices penetrated into everyday life of African societies. This passage would serve little purpose in the study of the gold-salt trade, islamic technology or the social hierarchy between “old” and “new” Muslims.
Question 5

Questions 5–8 refer to the images below.

INSERT IMAGES HERE  

Which of the following historical developments can be inferred from the information presented in map #2?

A
The use and popularity of caravans to facilitate trade along the Silk Road
B
The emergence of religious diversity among Arab merchants who traded in this region
C
The development of the Trans-Atlantic Trade as a main trade route between Europe and Africa
D
Development of technologies dealing with transportation caused an increased amount of trade routes leading to the growth of new trading cities
Question 5 Explanation: 
Map #2 depicts various trading cities and the naval routes between each of them. Therefore option D is the correct response. Although Trans-Atlantic Trade was the main trade route between Europe and Africa, the map does not show this.
Question 6

INSERT IMAGES HERE  

The information shown in both maps supports which of the following?

A
The wealth acquired was based on generational wealth, and not on cross-cultural trade
B
The development of African kingdoms was an isolated event that occurred only in West Africa
C
The networks of African trade routes and city-states that were based on interregional trade networks linked people in Europe, Africa, and the Indian Ocean
D
The spread of Islam out of the Arabian Peninsula into territories like Africa and Asia
Question 6 Explanation: 
The source of wealth and the spread of Islam are not shown in the maps given. Although African Kingdoms are depicted in map #1, the main idea of the image is to show the trade routes coming out of those regions. Therefore option C is correct because it depicts the connections between Europe, Africa, and the Indian Ocean.
Question 7

INSERT IMAGES HERE  

Map one would most likely be used by a historian studying this time period to show what?

A
The expansion of empires—including Mali in West Africa–facilitated Afro-Eurasian trade and communication as new people were drawn into the economies and trade networks
B
The efforts of West African kingdoms to use local religious customs to gain public support for expanding their empires
C
The popularity of folk stories in West African societies
D
The overgrowth of the Mali Empire and the resulting rise of the Songham Empire
Question 7 Explanation: 
Map #1 does not show contributing factors to the rise and fall of empires. Nor does it provide information on folklore or religious customs. Therefore option A is correct because it shows Afro-Eurasian trade and communication between regions.
Question 8

INSERT IMAGES HERE  

The trade patterns depicted in these two maps suffered a decline in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Which of the following was most directly responsible for this?

A
The small amount of Arab merchants and traders in the Indian Ocean
B
The rise of the Trans-Atlantic Trade
C
Greco-Roman culture in Europe
D
The Ming Empire pushed for an isolationist policy
Question 8 Explanation: 
Option B, the rise of the Trans-Atlantic Trade, is the correct answer because the slave trade that came with the Trans-Atlantic trade promoted an atmosphere of lawlessness and violence against Africans. This made economic and agricultural development almost impossible throughout much of West Africa, which then affected existing trade.
Question 9

Questions 9–11 refer to the image below.

INSERT IMAGE HERE  

Conditions like those shown in the image were caused most directly by which of the following?

A
The spread of Islam along the Silk Road.
B
Eurasian geography making it easier to travel across land with horses compared to more mountainous areas.
C
The breaking apart of the Mongol empire into four independent territories as a result of the death of the Mongol leader, Chingis Khan.
D
The secret introduction of Chinese maritime technologies into the Western worlds.
Question 9 Explanation: 
Option C is correct because the map presented shows four distinct regions: Khanate of the Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanate, Khanate of the Great Khan. One can then infer that this is because of the death of Mongol leader, Chingis Khan.
Question 10

INSERT IMAGES HERE  

Which historical trend from the 13th century can we infer using the map provided?

A
Although the people of the Mongolian Empire were divided, they still participated in cross-cultural trade and created trade routes
B
The growing economic inequality between the wealthiest Mongol rulers and the local populations
C
The nomadic way of life was being revived as rulers sought to expand their empires
D
The decline of the Pax Mongolica era along the Eurasian steppes
Question 10 Explanation: 
This map does not provide information regarding the economic inequality between locals and rulers, descriptions of nomadic ways of life or the decline of the Pax Mongolica era. It does show the Silk Road and trade cities along that route. Therefore option A is correct.
Question 11

INSERT IMAGES HERE  

This map is linked most directly by which of the following factors?

A
Demonstrating the multiculturalism of Mongolian territories
B
Increasing merchant support for the Mongols by demonstrating that they were successful in trade
C
The rugged geography and the climate of the central Asian steppes
D
The Mongols protected trade and travel along the Silk Road by providing security and diplomatic passports
Question 11 Explanation: 
Option D is correct because the presence of the Silk Road in this region and its spread can be attributed to the Mongols, who protected trade and travel through providing security and diplomatic passports.
Question 12

Questions 12–15 refer to the passages below.

Source 1:
"​Whatever silver the merchants may carry with them as far as Cathay [China] the lord of Cathay will take from them and put into his treasury. And to merchants who thus bring silver they give that paper money of theirs in exchange . . . With this money you can readily buy silk and other [merchandise] . . . And all the people of the country are bound to receive it. And yet you shall not pay a higher price for your goods because your money is paper."
-Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, “Guidebook for European Merchants”, (1340’s).

Source 2:
"Soju (Korea) is a very great and noble city. The people are idolaters, subjects of the Great Khan and have paper money. They possess silk in great quantities, from which they make gold brocade, and other stuff, and they live by their manufactures and trade...The city hath merchants of great wealth and an incalculable number of people..."
-Marco Polo, “The Travels of Marco Polo”., (c. 1271)
 

The statements of both European travelers share similar descriptions of

A
Attempting to convert the local populations of Asia to Chrsitianity
B
The system of financial activities tied to trade throughout the Chinese empire in the post-classical era
C
The urbanization in Asia that occurred as a result of cross-cultural trade
D
Maintaining the European social hierarchy by furthering an agricultural society dependent on free and forced labor.
Question 12 Explanation: 
Option B is the correct response because both passages mention the system of financial activities tied to trade throughout the Chinese empire. The passages do not mention Chrisitanity, urbanization or maintaining social hierarchy so those responses are incorrect.
Question 13

Source 1:
"​Whatever silver the merchants may carry with them as far as Cathay [China] the lord of Cathay will take from them and put into his treasury. And to merchants who thus bring silver they give that paper money of theirs in exchange . . . With this money you can readily buy silk and other [merchandise] . . . And all the people of the country are bound to receive it. And yet you shall not pay a higher price for your goods because your money is paper."
-Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, “Guidebook for European Merchants”, (1340’s).

Source 2:
"Soju (Korea) is a very great and noble city. The people are idolaters, subjects of the Great Khan and have paper money. They possess silk in great quantities, from which they make gold brocade, and other stuff, and they live by their manufactures and trade...The city hath merchants of great wealth and an incalculable number of people..."
-Marco Polo, “The Travels of Marco Polo”., (c. 1271)
 

What is the author’s purpose in writing source #1?

A
Create a contract that would avoid war between European and Asian monarchs
B
Protect the interests of the feudal lords, and provide a legal basis for feudalism
C
Gain support from European merchants for future trade missions with China
D
Support the expansionist desires of the merchants during the The Crusades
Question 13 Explanation: 
Both source #1 and source #2 go into great detail about the trade practices along the route and show it in a positive light. Therefore option C is correct because it is the author’s attempt to gain support from European merchants for future trade missions with China.
Question 14

Source 1:
"​Whatever silver the merchants may carry with them as far as Cathay [China] the lord of Cathay will take from them and put into his treasury. And to merchants who thus bring silver they give that paper money of theirs in exchange . . . With this money you can readily buy silk and other [merchandise] . . . And all the people of the country are bound to receive it. And yet you shall not pay a higher price for your goods because your money is paper."
-Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, “Guidebook for European Merchants”, (1340’s).

Source 2:
"Soju (Korea) is a very great and noble city. The people are idolaters, subjects of the Great Khan and have paper money. They possess silk in great quantities, from which they make gold brocade, and other stuff, and they live by their manufactures and trade...The city hath merchants of great wealth and an incalculable number of people..."
-Marco Polo, “The Travels of Marco Polo”., (c. 1271)
 

Marco Polo’s writing best reflects which of the following developments in the history of the Silk Road after 1200?

A
The increasing hold of power in the hands of a few wealthy merchants
B
The secretive process of the development of silk production
C
The Yuan Dynasty, led by Kublai Khan, controlled the Khanate of the Great Khan in China and ruled over the Korean Peninsula
D
European empires were politically divided and characterized by nationalist movements
Question 14 Explanation: 
Option C is the correct answer. The Yuan Dynasty, led by Kublai Khan, controlled the Khanate of the Great Khan in China and ruled over the Korean Peninsula. In the text it states, “The people are idolaters, subjects of the Great Khan and have paper money.”
Question 15

Source 1:
"​Whatever silver the merchants may carry with them as far as Cathay [China] the lord of Cathay will take from them and put into his treasury. And to merchants who thus bring silver they give that paper money of theirs in exchange . . . With this money you can readily buy silk and other [merchandise] . . . And all the people of the country are bound to receive it. And yet you shall not pay a higher price for your goods because your money is paper."
-Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, “Guidebook for European Merchants”, (1340’s).

Source 2:
"Soju (Korea) is a very great and noble city. The people are idolaters, subjects of the Great Khan and have paper money. They possess silk in great quantities, from which they make gold brocade, and other stuff, and they live by their manufactures and trade...The city hath merchants of great wealth and an incalculable number of people..."
-Marco Polo, “The Travels of Marco Polo”., (c. 1271)
 

The views expressed in the two passages reflect what cultural trends of Europe in the late medieval era?

A
Many of the European merchants who traveled to Asia wrote about their journeys and were impressed by the high level of economic and social activity as compared to Europe at the time
B
Many of the merchants who traveled to Asia interacted heavily with Muslim individuals
C
Governments in Europe cooperated with private businesses in an effort to limit their role in the economy
D
Policies of feudalism were incorporated by the governments of many developed European countries
Question 15 Explanation: 
Both sources chronicle European merchants' journey of trading along the Silk Road. From their writings we can infer that they were pleased with what they saw, so therefore option A would be the best answer to this question.
Question 16

Questions 16–18 refer to the passage below.

“...The technique of producing gunpowder from scratch was monopolized and kept secret by the Chinese, specifically the Won, or Yuan. The Won also prohibited the exportation of gunpowder to Joseon, on the grounds of national security. It is with Choi’s success from 1374 to 1376 in independently making gunpowder in Goryeo that such technology was first demonstrated outside of China. And his endeavors would not end there.
Until then, gunpowder was not used for firearms in Korea. Rather, it was seen as a material for strictly non-military purposes such as fireworks during the celebration of certain events...The Mongols brought cannons to Korea throughout their invasions from 1231 to 1259. However it would not be until Choi’s engineering efforts that the notion to start using gunpowder for firearms was first advocated and acknowledged on the peninsula. Thereafter, the Joseon would continue Choi’s legacy by developing an entire series of improved cannons, along with turtle ships created in the 16th century...”

-Peter S. Kim, “The Age of Gunpowder”, (2013)
 

Which major historical event is best described by the excerpt from the passage above?

A
The economic decline of Korean states resulting from the importation of cheap consumer goods
B
The growing imperial ambitions of the Korean rulers
C
The cross-cultural spread of gunpowder technology in Asia during the post-classical era
D
The declining political power of European merchants in Asia
Question 16 Explanation: 
The passage from “The Age of Gunpowder” does not mention the economic decline of Korea or of European merchants and it also does not mention the imperial ambitions of the monarch. Therefore option C is correct because the excerpt reviews how China’s influence spread into Korea.
Question 17

“...The technique of producing gunpowder from scratch was monopolized and kept secret by the Chinese, specifically the Won, or Yuan. The Won also prohibited the exportation of gunpowder to Joseon, on the grounds of national security. It is with Choi’s success from 1374 to 1376 in independently making gunpowder in Goryeo that such technology was first demonstrated outside of China. And his endeavors would not end there.
Until then, gunpowder was not used for firearms in Korea. Rather, it was seen as a material for strictly non-military purposes such as fireworks during the celebration of certain events...The Mongols brought cannons to Korea throughout their invasions from 1231 to 1259. However it would not be until Choi’s engineering efforts that the notion to start using gunpowder for firearms was first advocated and acknowledged on the peninsula. Thereafter, the Joseon would continue Choi’s legacy by developing an entire series of improved cannons, along with turtle ships created in the 16th century...”

-Peter S. Kim, “The Age of Gunpowder”, (2013)
 

The spread of gunpowder was most similar to the development of what other historical occurrence?

A
The adoption of Buddhism in many Asian societies
B
The spread of papermaking
C
The need to protect and secure the trade routes along the Silk Road
D
The economic and military actions of European Christians during the same time period
Question 17 Explanation: 
Option B is correct. In much of the same way that gunpowder spread from China to Korea, paper (which was created in China) spread along the Silk Road to the rest of the world.
Question 18

“...The technique of producing gunpowder from scratch was monopolized and kept secret by the Chinese, specifically the Won, or Yuan. The Won also prohibited the exportation of gunpowder to Joseon, on the grounds of national security. It is with Choi’s success from 1374 to 1376 in independently making gunpowder in Goryeo that such technology was first demonstrated outside of China. And his endeavors would not end there.
Until then, gunpowder was not used for firearms in Korea. Rather, it was seen as a material for strictly non-military purposes such as fireworks during the celebration of certain events...The Mongols brought cannons to Korea throughout their invasions from 1231 to 1259. However it would not be until Choi’s engineering efforts that the notion to start using gunpowder for firearms was first advocated and acknowledged on the peninsula. Thereafter, the Joseon would continue Choi’s legacy by developing an entire series of improved cannons, along with turtle ships created in the 16th century...”

-Peter S. Kim, “The Age of Gunpowder”, (2013)
 

How may a historian researching this time period argue that this passage reflects a turning point in World History?

A
It demonstrates the first time that non-European societies used gunpowder technology
B
It demonstrates the ineffectiveness of the Silk Roads in preventing military conquests
C
It signals the Yuan’s desire to create an empire based on resources and conquest in Asia
D
It shows the cross-cultural spread of gunpowder technology outside of China for the first time, leading to further advancements in firearm technology and war for future generations.
Question 18 Explanation: 
Option D is the correct answer because the passage from “The Age of Gunpowder” maps out the spread of weapons technology outside of China. Because of this, it is able to spread far across the globe.
Question 19

Questions 19–20 refer to the images below.

Maqamat hariri
Source #1: Muslim scholars reading books and debating philosophies at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad circa early 13th century

Tusi couple
Source #2: The Persian astronomer Nasir al Din Tusi, "Tusi Couple Diagram” (c. 13th century). This showed the rate of varying speeds at which celestial bodies orbit the earth. His work influenced Niccolai Copernicus in the 16th century.  

The philosophy reflected in the two images most directly contributed to which of the following?

A
The Muslim scholars being closely linked to merchants along the Silk Road
B
The universal adoption of scientific inquiry over religious beliefs in the Arab world
C
The adoption of the “Arabic” numeral system in European society, and the revival of philosophical inquiry in Greco-Roman philosophies
D
The spread of religion as a vehicle for promoting cross-cultural trade
Question 19 Explanation: 
Both Source #1 & #2 are not related to the Silk Road, using religion to promote trade or promoting science over religion. The images do, however, show the emergence of philosophical thinking and scientific theories in the Arabic world, and therefore option C is the correct answer.
Question 20

Maqamat hariri
Source #1: Muslim scholars reading books and debating philosophies at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad circa early 13th century

Tusi couple
Source #2: The Persian astronomer Nasir al Din Tusi, "Tusi Couple Diagram” (c. 13th century). This showed the rate of varying speeds at which celestial bodies orbit the earth. His work influenced Niccolai Copernicus in the 16th century.  

T​he content of the images reflects most directly which of the following trends in the late medieval/post-classical period(s)?

A
Muslim merchants promoted the funding of universities across the Arab world
B
The European cities were the centers for advanced education and learning in the world
C
The Muslim world was controlled by religious scholars who opposed science and math
D
The Muslim world promoted the advancement of science and philosophy
Question 20 Explanation: 
Both Source #1 & #2 show the Muslim world promoting and participating in the advancement of science and philosophy. Therefore option D is the correct answer.
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