AP World History Long Essay Question Example 3

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Analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution on global economic and social developments from c. 1750–2001. 

Consider the changes in production methods, urbanization, labor systems, and their effects on different regions of the world.


Sample Answer:

Thesis/Claim (1 point): The Industrial Revolution, which spanned from c. 1750 to 2001, had a profound and far-reaching impact on global economic and social developments, fundamentally transforming production methods, urbanization patterns, labor systems, and societies worldwide.

Contextualization (1 point): The c. 1750–2001 period marked a significant era in world history, characterized by the emergence of the Industrial Revolution. This era witnessed innovations in manufacturing, urbanization, and technological advancements, setting the stage for profound changes in economic and social structures.

Evidence (2 points): The Industrial Revolution ushered in a new era of production methods. For instance, the mechanization of textile production in British textile mills led to increased efficiency and mass production. Innovations such as the spinning jenny and the power loom revolutionized the textile industry, setting a precedent for industrialization in other sectors.

Urbanization patterns underwent a significant shift during this period. As industries grew, cities expanded rapidly to accommodate a burgeoning workforce. The development of factory towns and cities, such as Manchester in England, showcased the concentration of industrial activities, while rural-to-urban migration became a prominent phenomenon.

Labor systems evolved significantly. The factory system replaced traditional cottage industries, with workers now laboring in centralized factories. This shift introduced new labor practices, including long working hours and poor working conditions. Labor movements, such as trade unions, emerged in response to workers’ demands for improved rights and working conditions.

Analysis and Reasoning (2 points): The Industrial Revolution of c. 1750–2001 brought about fundamental changes in production methods, urbanization patterns, and labor systems worldwide. The shift from agrarian-based economies to industrialized societies reshaped economies, altered social structures, and had far-reaching impacts on global history.

To achieve a more complex understanding, it’s important to consider the broader implications of the Industrial Revolution. While it led to economic growth and technological advancement, it also brought about social inequalities and labor exploitation. The analysis should encompass both the positive and negative consequences of this transformation.

In conclusion, the Industrial Revolution from c. 1750–2001 marked a pivotal period in history, fundamentally altering production methods, urbanization patterns, labor systems, and societies. This complex historical development had profound and lasting impacts on the world.

Total Points: 6

This essay provides a historically defensible thesis, relevant contextualization, specific evidence, and a well-structured analysis, earning a perfect score according to the 2023 AP World LEQ Rubric.


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