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Questions 1–2 refer to the following excerpt:
What impact did the automobile have on American society in the early 20th century?
It helped spark the Great Depression because many people went bankrupt after they bought cars and were unable to make the payments.
It had little impact before World War II because only upper-class individuals could buy cars since they were so expensive.
It spurred an increase in immigration because many Europeans wanted to move to America so they could have an automobile.
It led to increased personal freedom and mobility.
Question 1 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). The widespread use of automobiles led to greater mobility, especially for young people. Previously, young men and women “courted” each other under heavy parental supervision. Automobiles allowed teenagers to meet outside the home without chaperones.
What impact did automobiles have on Jim Crow laws in the early 20th century?
Cars helped immediately end Jim Crow segregation by proving the blacks could drive as well as whites.
Cars had little impact on Jim Crow segregation because blacks were prohibited from owning or driving cars (except as chauffeurs).
Cars gave blacks more mobility but did not totally undermine Jim Crow rules.
Automobiles reinforced Jim Crow segregation because blacks were forced to pull over and let whites drive their cars whenever they wanted.
Question 2 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). Cars let blacks move about more freely but they were still subject to discrimination. Many black motorists were still banned from public services such as gas stations, rest areas, and motels. Police officer also harassed black motorists.
Questions 3–4 refer to the following excerpt:
What attitude did the Progressives take towards the conditions described by Sinclair?
They thought everyone should become a vegan in order to reduce meat consumption.
They thought more government regulation was required in order to protect public health.
They supported laissez-faire economics and felt consumers should boycott corrupt meat packing firms.
The felt nothing should be done because they supported laissez-faire economics.
Question 3 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Progressives believed that increased government regulation could solve many different political, social, and economic issues.
How did the Progressives feel about women’s suffrage and Prohibition?
They uniformly supported women’s suffrage but opposed Prohibition.
They unanimously supported women’s suffrage but opposed Prohibition.
They generally supported both causes.
They unanimously opposed both causes.
Question 4 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). Generally, Progressives supported women’s suffrage because they felt it was an essential part of American democracy. They also typically supported Prohibition because it would use the power of the government to eliminate social problems.
Questions 5–7 refer to the following excerpt:
What consequences, if any, did World War I have for African-Americans?
They immediately earned full political and legal rights because of their bravery under fire.
Cultural rejuvenation occurred as many blacks moved north in search of jobs.
Many were jailed because of their opposition to the war.
None — African Americans made few contributions to the war effort.
Question 5 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Because of manpower shortages, tens of thousands of Southern blacks moved north in order to find employment — this was known as the Great Migration. These social changes led to the Harlem Renaissance — a cultural phenomenon that focused on ethnic and regional identity in fashion, music, and literature.
What impact did World War I have on free speech in America?
None — the government did not hide any secrets from the public during the war.
The war stimulated free speech by encouraging debate about the causes of the conflict.
The Espionage and Sedition Acts curbed free speech during the war.
The revocation of the First Amendment permanently restricted the right to free speech.
Question 6 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). The Espionage and Sedition Acts were enacted to protect military secrets and enforce loyalty during World War I. The laws were mostly used to prosecute political radicals like Eugene Debs and Emma Goldman. The Sedition Act was repealed in 1921 but the Espionage Act remains in force to this day.
Which of the following statements best describes American participation in World War I?
The US joined the conflict very late but provided a key contribution to the Triple Entente.
The US fought alongside the Central Powers for the entire duration of the war.
The US stayed out of the fight but helped broker a peace treaty that ended the conflict.
The US initially allied itself with the Central Powers but later switched sides once it became clear the Triple Entente would win.
Question 7 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). President Woodrow Wilson initially kept the United States out of World War I by declaring neutrality. Eventually, unrestricted U-boat warfare and the Zimmerman Telegram brought the US into the conflict on the side of the Triple Entente (Britain, France, & Russia). Although American soldiers only saw action for a few months in 1918, they helped defeat the Central Powers (Germany & Austria-Hungary).
Questions 8–10 refer to the following excerpt:
What was the main strategy President Roosevelt used in the New Deal to try and end the Great Depression?
Increased government regulation and spending.
Laissez-faire economics and private charity.
An early form of “pay it forward” where citizens did good deeds for each other.
The establishment of communism and the destruction of private property.
Question 8 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). Roosevelt, and many supporters, felt that more regulations were required in order to prevent some of the problems that had caused the Great Depression. New Dealers also wanted to see the government provide aid to people who were suffering and to stimulate the economy through higher spending.
What impact did President Roosevelt’s New Deal have on the US economy?
It instantly solved the Great Depression.
Although it did not end the Great Depression, New Deal programs continue to affect Americans in the 21st century.
The New Deal was largely a failure and had little impact on the nation.
The New Deal was successful but was completely dismantled after the Great Depression ended.
Question 9 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). The New Deal alleviated many symptoms of the Great Depression but the economy did not fully recover until the United States entered World War II. However, the New Deal created programs such as Social Security and Medicare which remain in effect to this day.
What impact, if any, did the New Deal have on US politics?
It completely destroyed the Republican and Democratic parties.
It led to a Communist dictatorship.
None — politics went on without any major changes.
It led to an ideological realignment of Republican and Democratic parties.
Question 10 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). The New Deal radically altered the membership and ideology of the Republicans and Democrats. Previously, Republicans had been advocates of increased government power but now the Democrats absorbed that platform. African-Americans had supported the Republican Party since the Civil War but generally supported the Democrats after the New Deal.
Questions 11–13 refer to the following excerpt:
What long-term factors led to World War II?
The Holocaust and persecution of the Jews.
The weakness of Imperial powers to check German and Japanese expansion.
A strong League of Nations which disarmed Allied powers.
The Great Depression and the Cold War.
Question 11 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). The Great Depression crippled the ability for European powers and the US to effectively counter Nazi and Japanese expansion during the 1920’s and 1930’s. Germany began to rearm in 1935, and Britain and France were unable to stop them due to their relative weakness and unwillingness to involve themselves in European affairs while also dealing with economic issues. Japan began their quest for expansion in the early 1900s, and by the mid-1930’s their Pacific fleet was only matched by the Americans. This provided both Axis powers the ability to expand right under the noses of their future enemies.
Which of the following advantages helped the United States achieve victory in World War II?
A well established professional standing army.
Centuries of imperial warfare experience.
Advanced naval and armored doctrine.
Superior industrial capacity and manufacturing capabilities.
Question 12 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). The industrial capacity of the US was strong prior to WW2, but it had not yet reached its potential. During the war, men like William Knudsen and Henry Kaiser retooled American industrial might to mass produce ships, weapons, armored vehicles, and planes. American abundance of natural resources such as coal, iron, and oil made them a powerhouse of production during the war, and allowed them to quickly and effectively replace material losses and deliver new material across the world.
What consequences did World War II have on status of the United States?
Although it was a great victory, the US quickly reverted to isolationism in order to avoid being drawn into another bloody conflict.
Although it was a great victory, the US was only one of many powerful nations that emerged victorious after the conflict.
The US emerged from the war as one of only two superpowers alongside the USSR.
World War II was a pyrrhic victory for all involved — victory came at a high cost that negated any benefits of victory.
Question 13 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). World War II had devastated all the other major world powers, aside from the US and USSR. This left the US as the preeminent non-communist power and the nation took an increasingly dominant role in global affairs.
Question 14 refers to the following excerpt:
Which of the following sentences best describes the significance of the Scopes Trial?
It was an important case that set new standards for naval safety and equipment.
It was a minor case about evolution that drew little attention outside of Tennessee.
It was a major case that established Christianity as the official religion of the United States.
It was a major case that highlighted the growing tension between modern and traditional values.
Question 14 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). The Scopes Trial embodied the controversy between Fundamentalists, who emphasized Biblical truth, and Modernists, who felt evolution and religion were compatible. The trial brought national attention and featured famous attorneys on both sides of the argument. It ended with a modest fine against the teacher John Scopes who was accused of teaching evolution but the ban was eventually repealed in 1967.
Questions 15–18 refer to the following excerpt:
The Zimmermann Telegram was significant because it:
Proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico against the U.S.
Offered financial aid to Mexico from the U.S.
Detailed Germany's plans to end submarine warfare.
Encouraged Mexico to form an alliance with the Central Powers.
Question 15 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). The Zimmermann Telegram was a secret communication from Germany proposing a military alliance with Mexico if the U.S. entered World War I against Germany.
Germany's intention to resume "unrestricted submarine warfare" was a direct threat to:
Mexico's naval forces.
U.S. and neutral ships in the Atlantic.
The Central Powers' naval dominance.
The British blockade of German ports.
Question 16 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Germany's decision to resume unrestricted submarine warfare posed a significant threat to U.S. and other neutral ships in the Atlantic, leading to increased tensions.
The territories mentioned in the telegram (Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona) were previously:
Acquired by the U.S. through the Louisiana Purchase.
Lost by Mexico in the Mexican-American War.
Purchased by the U.S. in the Gadsden Purchase.
Colonized by German immigrants in the 19th century.
Question 17 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). The territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona were previously part of Mexico and were ceded to the U.S. as a result of the Mexican-American War.
The interception and publication of the Zimmermann Telegram by British intelligence:
Was seen as a fabrication by the U.S. public.
Had little impact on U.S. public opinion.
Played a role in influencing the U.S. decision to enter World War I.
Was immediately dismissed by President Woodrow Wilson.
Question 18 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). The interception and subsequent publication of the Zimmermann Telegram by British intelligence played a significant role in swaying U.S. public opinion against Germany and influenced the U.S. decision to enter World War I.
Questions 19–22 refer to the following excerpt:
The primary motivation for the Great Migration of African Americans from the South was to:
Seek better economic opportunities and escape racial segregation.
Promote cultural and artistic movements in the North.
Establish new agricultural communities in the West.
Advocate for the end of World War I.
Question 19 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). The Great Migration saw millions of African Americans move from the South to other parts of the U.S., primarily driven by the desire for better economic opportunities and to escape the oppressive racial segregation and Jim Crow laws of the South. This movement was not just about relocation but represented a quest for freedom, dignity, and better living conditions. The migration had profound implications for both the regions they left and the areas they moved to.
The Great Migration had a significant impact on:
The demographics and culture of northern cities.
The agricultural productivity of the South.
The political alliances between the North and the South.
The foreign policies of the U.S. during World War I.
Question 20 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). The influx of African Americans into northern cities during the Great Migration significantly altered the demographics of these cities. This migration also brought about cultural, social, and political changes, with the establishment of vibrant communities and the rise of cultural movements like the Harlem Renaissance. The North had to adjust to this new population, leading to both cultural enrichment and new societal challenges.
According to the excerpt, the Great Migration played a role in:
The onset of World War I.
Pushing the country toward the civil rights revolutions of the 1960s.
The decline of industrialization in the North.
The establishment of the New Deal programs.
Question 21 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). The excerpt suggests that the Great Migration, by its sheer magnitude and impact, played a role in pushing the U.S. towards the civil rights movements of the 1960s. The movement of such a large number of African Americans and their quest for better rights and living conditions laid the groundwork for future civil rights activism and changes. The migration highlighted the racial disparities and set the stage for the major civil rights movements that would follow.
The "unmet promises made after the Civil War" mentioned in the excerpt refer to:
The promises of land redistribution to former slaves.
The promises of full citizenship and equal rights for African Americans.
The promises of economic compensation to the South.
The promises of military protection for newly freed slaves.
Question 22 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). The "unmet promises" allude to the promises of full citizenship, equal rights, and protection for African Americans after the Civil War, which were largely unfulfilled, especially in the South. Despite the passage of the Reconstruction Amendments, African Americans faced systemic discrimination, segregation, and violence, particularly in the South. These unmet promises were a significant factor in the motivation for the Great Migration.
Questions 23–24 refer to the following excerpt:
How, if at all, did the status of women change in the early 20th century?
Women gained greater economic and political freedom.
Women were forced to choose between motherhood and a career.
Women became unwilling participants in the modern economy.
It changed very little — the “New Woman” was largely a fiction.
Question 23 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). Ratified in 1920, the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote. In addition, women entered the workforce in greater numbers, especially during World War I. However, many reformers continued to demand more change.
Based on the provided passage, which of the following best describes the societal attitudes towards women's roles during the early 20th century?
The passage supports the idea that women should have equal opportunities in both the workplace and home.
The passage reflects a concern that economic changes are pushing women into roles traditionally reserved for men.
The passage promotes the belief that women's primary responsibility is to the domestic sphere, irrespective of economic conditions.
The passage underscores the adaptability and versatility of women in juggling multiple roles.
Question 24 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). The passage highlights the emergence of the "New Woman" as a result of modern economic conditions, suggesting a shift in women's roles from the domestic sphere to the commercial world. The use of the term "dragged" implies a certain reluctance or resistance to this change. The passage further emphasizes the perceived incompatibility of women's traditional roles as homemakers and mothers with their new roles in business and politics. While the other options touch on relevant themes, they do not capture the primary sentiment of the passage, which expresses concern over the changing roles of women in society.
Questions 25–26 refer to the following excerpt:
What position did John Muir take on the exploitation of natural resources within the national park system?
Because he was a conservationist, he opposed it.
Because he was a preservationist, he opposed it.
Because he was a conservationist, he supported it.
Because he was a preservationist, he supported it.
Question 25 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Muir was a preservationist who wanted to minimize human impact on the environment. He thus wanted to protect natural resources for exploitation and abuse. Conservationists felt that the responsible use of natural resources was not problematic.
Considering the context of American history and the westward expansion era, which of the following best describes the underlying sentiment expressed in the provided passage?
The passage reflects the Manifest Destiny belief, emphasizing the boundless opportunities and beauty of the American West.
The passage warns of the environmental consequences of rapid industrialization and urbanization.
The passage promotes the idea of isolationism, suggesting a retreat from societal responsibilities.
The passage underscores the hardships and challenges faced by pioneers during westward expansion.
Question 26 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). The passage paints a vivid picture of the natural beauty and freedom associated with the American wilderness, particularly the mountains. This aligns with the 19th-century belief in Manifest Destiny, which held that Americans were destined to expand across the continent, bringing progress and enlightenment. The imagery of "freedom of the mountaineer" and the rejuvenating qualities of nature can be interpreted as symbolic of the opportunities and potential the West offered to settlers. While the other options touch on important themes in American history, they do not align as closely with the primary sentiment of the passage.
Questions 27–28 refer to the following excerpt:
What impact did the Spanish-American War have on the military and political status of the United States?
The war was a humiliating defeat for America and reduced the nation’s status.
The war was a stalemate that neither hurt nor helped America's status.
The war was a decisive victory, but did little to improve America's status as a world power because little was gained from the war.
The war was a decisive victory that helped propel the United Status on to the world stage.
Question 27 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). The Spanish-American War was a brief and lop-sided victory. The Treaty of Paris required Spain to cede many colonies to the United States which made the U.S. an imperial power. The war was largely a naval conflict which established the United States as a major sea-power as well.
The public reaction to the sinking of the USS Maine was greatly impacted by which of the following?
The sensationalism inspired by American “Yellow Journalists.”
The additional sinking of the Lusitania by Spanish ships.
The annexation of Guam by the American Navy.
The intervention of the British on the side of the Spanish Empire.
Question 28 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). Before the captain of the Maine could even send incident reports on the explosion, American “Yellow Journalists” were sensationalizing the story and fanning the flames of war among American citizens. By the time the reports of a possible boiler explosion came in, Americans were already demanding that their honor be satisfied by taking war to the Spanish. The New York Journal, owned by William Randoph Hearst, ran a headline on Feb 17, 1898 calling the explosion the work of the “enemy” and offering a $50k award for information about the “perpetrator.”
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