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What determines the function of a protein?
The number of peptide bonds
The types of side chains
The protein’s specific structure
The tissue that produces the protein
Question 1 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). The function of a protein depends on its ability to recognize and bind to some other molecule. For example, antibodies are specific to the invading virus or bacteria, and enzymes are specific to a substrate.
There are several emergent properties of water that contribute its powerful affect on living organisms. These emerging properties are mostly due to:
The abundance of water on Earth
The hydrogen bonds linking water molecules together
Water’s ability to moderate pH
The buffering ability of water
Question 2 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). The hydrogen bonds between water molecules are able to form, break and re-form frequently. Water’s life-sustaining properties are a result of hydrogen bonding that orders molecules into a higher level of structural organization.
What cellular structure is responsible for its selective permeability?
Question 3 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). The phosolipid bilayer of the plasma membrane allows some molecules to enter while keeping other molecules out.
Why will the enzyme sucrase only act on sucrose and not bind to other disaccharides, such as maltose?
Because of sucrose’s molecular formula
Because sucrose has a 1-2 glycosidic linkage and maltose has a 1-4 glycosidic linkage
Because sucrose fits perfectly into sucrase’s active site, and other disaccharides do not
Because sucrose contains fructose
Question 4 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). Enzymes work exclusively on specific substrates, based on their shape.
What property of DNA allows it to replicate and repair?
Specific base pairing
Double stranded structure
All of the above
Question 5 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). Specific base pairing, the double stranded structure and DNA’s antiparallel elongation are all important properties that contribute to DNA’s ability to replicate and repair.
Most heritable variation involves characteristics that vary along a continuum within a population. These characters are referred to as:
Question 6 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). Quantitative characters are ones that exhibit a continuous distribution. Such characters are often the result of polygenic inheritance.
Differences in variation between populations living in separate locations is referred to as:
The founder effect
Question 7 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Geographic variation occurs when there are differences in the genetic composition of separate populations.
What it the ultimate source of new alleles in a population?
Question 8 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism’s DNA can create new alleles.
In order for a mutation to affect a population’s genetic diversity in animals, the mutation must take place:
In the somatic cells
In the gametes
Question 9 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). In animals, mutations that take place in cells which are not involved in producing gametes (intestinal cells, for example) will be lost when the individual dies, and not passed on to offspring. In order for the mutation to be passed down to offspring, it must affect the gametes.
Sexual reproduction produces variation within populations through which mechanism(s)?
Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes
All of the above
Question 10 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). Crossing over contributes to genetic variation through the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. During metaphase I of meiosis, homologous pairs of chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate and can be oriented in 2 different ways. The random way in which the homologous pairs line up and then are separated into separate cells will create variety among the gametes. Finally, the random fertilization of gametes will also affect the variety of the offspring.
If you are ill with a bacterial infection and take antibiotics, the antibiotic will kill the harmful bacteria in your body. You will start feeling better and you may be tempted to stop taking the antibiotics before you finish the prescription. If you do stop taking the antibiotics, a small population of bacteria could survive. This small population of bacteria may have allele frequencies different from the bacteria that perished early in the antibiotic regimen. The remaining population can continue to live in your body and cause problems, but the population of bacteria will not be as genetically diverse.
This phenomenon is referred to as:
Question 11 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). The bottleneck effect occurs when there is a sudden change in the environment that drastically reduces the size of the population. Because of the reduced population, certain alleles may be overrepresented in the surviving organisms. This will eventually affect the gene pool.
When a glacier retreats what is left behind is rock that has been scrubbed clean of all life and soil. Through time, the newly revealed land will be recolonized through the process of:
Question 12 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). Primary succession takes place after a disturbance has left a terrestrial community devoid of all life and viable soil. Secondary succession leaves the soil intact.
Warmer climates, adequate rainfall and the older age of tropical communities has resulted in:
Greater species diversity in tropical communities than in polar and temperate communities
Less predation in tropical communities
Greater pouching in tropical communities
Question 13 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). Biodiversity favors warmer climates with adequate rainfall. Also, tropical communities have had more opportunities to experience speciation because the growing season is longer and it has not experienced biological setbacks such as glaciations.
Which of the following offers the best explanation of the island equilibrium model proposed by MacArthur and Wilson?
Over time, an island’s geology will remain stable
Over time, the rate of immigration and the rate of species extinction become equal and stabilize the population and the number of species will correlate with the island’s size and its distance from the mainland
The size of the island will be the primary determinate of the number of predators the island can support
The location of the island will be the primary determinate of the types of predators the island can support
Question 14 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the rate of species extinction will equal the rate of immigration, and the number of species at this equilibrium point can be correlated to the size of the island and its distance from the mainland.
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