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Question 1

Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below.

“How different is our situation! We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs. If we could at least have managed our domestic affairs and our internal administration, we could have acquainted ourselves with the processes and mechanics of public affairs. We should also have enjoyed a personal consideration, thereby commanding a certain unconscious respect from the people, which is so necessary to preserve amidst revolutions. That is why I say we have even been deprived of an active tyranny, since we have not been permitted to exercise its functions.

“Americans today, and perhaps to a greater extent than ever before, who live within the Spanish system occupy a position in society no better than that of serfs destined for labor, or at best they have no more status than that of mere consumers. Yet even this status is surrounded with galling restrictions, such as being forbidden to grow European crops, or to store products which are royal monopolies, or to establish factories of a type the Peninsula itself does not possess. To this add the exclusive trading privileges, even in articles of prime necessity, and the barriers between American provinces, designed to prevent all exchange of trade, traffic, and understanding. In short, do you wish to know what our future held? —simply the cultivation of the fields of indigo, grain, coffee, sugar cane, cacao, and cotton; cattle raising on the broad plains; hunting wild game in the jungles; digging in the earth to mine its gold—but even these limitations could never satisfy the greed of Spain.”

—Simón Bolívar, Reply of a South American to a Gentleman of this Island (Jamaica), 1815
 

Based on the above passage, Bolívar’s ideas were most likely influenced by which of the following?

A
The protection of the traditional Spanish social hierarchy
B
The creation of joint-stock companies and their royal abuse of exclusive control over sugar in the Americas
C
The Haitian and American Revolutions
D
The eradication of the Mit'a system in the Middle Ages
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C) because Bolivar is writing this letter based on the independence movements already happening in America. Option (A) is the opposite of Bolivar’s purpose in writing this document and option (B)’s sugar is not his only mention. Also, option (D) is historically inaccurate.
Question 2
“How different is our situation! We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs. If we could at least have managed our domestic affairs and our internal administration, we could have acquainted ourselves with the processes and mechanics of public affairs. We should also have enjoyed a personal consideration, thereby commanding a certain unconscious respect from the people, which is so necessary to preserve amidst revolutions. That is why I say we have even been deprived of an active tyranny, since we have not been permitted to exercise its functions.

“Americans today, and perhaps to a greater extent than ever before, who live within the Spanish system occupy a position in society no better than that of serfs destined for labor, or at best they have no more status than that of mere consumers. Yet even this status is surrounded with galling restrictions, such as being forbidden to grow European crops, or to store products which are royal monopolies, or to establish factories of a type the Peninsula itself does not possess. To this add the exclusive trading privileges, even in articles of prime necessity, and the barriers between American provinces, designed to prevent all exchange of trade, traffic, and understanding. In short, do you wish to know what our future held? —simply the cultivation of the fields of indigo, grain, coffee, sugar cane, cacao, and cotton; cattle raising on the broad plains; hunting wild game in the jungles; digging in the earth to mine its gold—but even these limitations could never satisfy the greed of Spain.”

—Simón Bolívar, Reply of a South American to a Gentleman of this Island (Jamaica), 1815
 

The struggle inferred in Bolívar’s argument would result in which of the following occurring?

A
The migration of South American creoles to the United States to enjoy greater freedoms
B
The unification of all of South American territories under Simón Bolívar's command
C
The complete collapse of the Spanish Empire
D
The end of the Spanish Empire’s control in South America
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Creoles wanted more freedoms in South America, and South America engaged in the opposite of unification. Therefore options (A), (B) and (C) are incorrect. Option (D) is correct because the Spanish lost control of their territories in South America.
Question 3
“How different is our situation! We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs. If we could at least have managed our domestic affairs and our internal administration, we could have acquainted ourselves with the processes and mechanics of public affairs. We should also have enjoyed a personal consideration, thereby commanding a certain unconscious respect from the people, which is so necessary to preserve amidst revolutions. That is why I say we have even been deprived of an active tyranny, since we have not been permitted to exercise its functions.

“Americans today, and perhaps to a greater extent than ever before, who live within the Spanish system occupy a position in society no better than that of serfs destined for labor, or at best they have no more status than that of mere consumers. Yet even this status is surrounded with galling restrictions, such as being forbidden to grow European crops, or to store products which are royal monopolies, or to establish factories of a type the Peninsula itself does not possess. To this add the exclusive trading privileges, even in articles of prime necessity, and the barriers between American provinces, designed to prevent all exchange of trade, traffic, and understanding. In short, do you wish to know what our future held? —simply the cultivation of the fields of indigo, grain, coffee, sugar cane, cacao, and cotton; cattle raising on the broad plains; hunting wild game in the jungles; digging in the earth to mine its gold—but even these limitations could never satisfy the greed of Spain.”

—Simón Bolívar, Reply of a South American to a Gentleman of this Island (Jamaica), 1815
 

Which of the following best describes the economic restrictions placed on the American provinces by the Spanish Empire, according to the passage?

A
Encouragement of diversified agricultural and industrial development within the colonies
B
Imposition of trade barriers and monopolistic practices to control colonial economies
C
Promotion of free trade between American provinces and other European nations
D
Support for local governance to manage economic affairs independently
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The passage describes various economic restrictions imposed by the Spanish Empire on its American colonies, such as forbidding the growth of European crops, storing products that were royal monopolies, establishing certain types of factories, and granting exclusive trading privileges. These measures were designed to keep the colonies economically dependent on Spain, preventing them from developing their own industries or trading freely with others. This control was exerted through trade barriers and monopolistic practices, which stifled economic development within the colonies and ensured their dependence on the metropole.
Question 4
“How different is our situation! We have been harassed by a conduct which has not only deprived us of our rights but has kept us in a sort of permanent infancy with regard to public affairs. If we could at least have managed our domestic affairs and our internal administration, we could have acquainted ourselves with the processes and mechanics of public affairs. We should also have enjoyed a personal consideration, thereby commanding a certain unconscious respect from the people, which is so necessary to preserve amidst revolutions. That is why I say we have even been deprived of an active tyranny, since we have not been permitted to exercise its functions.

“Americans today, and perhaps to a greater extent than ever before, who live within the Spanish system occupy a position in society no better than that of serfs destined for labor, or at best they have no more status than that of mere consumers. Yet even this status is surrounded with galling restrictions, such as being forbidden to grow European crops, or to store products which are royal monopolies, or to establish factories of a type the Peninsula itself does not possess. To this add the exclusive trading privileges, even in articles of prime necessity, and the barriers between American provinces, designed to prevent all exchange of trade, traffic, and understanding. In short, do you wish to know what our future held? —simply the cultivation of the fields of indigo, grain, coffee, sugar cane, cacao, and cotton; cattle raising on the broad plains; hunting wild game in the jungles; digging in the earth to mine its gold—but even these limitations could never satisfy the greed of Spain.”

—Simón Bolívar, Reply of a South American to a Gentleman of this Island (Jamaica), 1815
 

What can be inferred about the social and political status of Americans living under the Spanish system from the passage?

A
They enjoyed a high degree of autonomy and respect from the Spanish authorities
B
They were largely integrated into the Spanish social hierarchy, with rights comparable to those of Spanish citizens
C
They were viewed and treated as inferiors, with limited rights and a status akin to serfs
D
They had the opportunity to participate actively in the governance of their territories
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The passage explicitly states that Americans living within the Spanish system occupied a position in society no better than that of serfs destined for labor or, at best, mere consumers. This indicates a clear lack of personal consideration, respect, and autonomy, highlighting their inferior social and political status under Spanish rule. The passage also mentions the deprivation of rights and the inability to manage domestic or internal affairs, further underscoring the limited status and rights of Americans under the Spanish colonial system.
Question 5

Questions 5–9 refer to the passage below.

“You send me alarming news from our sugar islands, principally from Saint Domingue. The inhabitants of that island may all be currently being held at knife point by the Negroes in revolt.

“Perverse men abuse the purity of your intentions, criminally interpreting the decrees of the National Assembly and making their treacherous plans undo what humanity and liberty have done for the happiness of its citizens in another hemisphere. In the name of this humanity, of which you are a worthy apostle, and in the name of the homeland that counts you among its best citizens, I beg you sir, add your voice to the cries of pain of all the Haitians of our islands, of the colonial land-owners living in France, and of the uncountable mass of Frenchmen who live off the commerce of the colonies. Consider that these colonies are France's destiny. Consider the sixty million [francs] profit from their exports each year, and the enormous importance of the income already lost. Consider that their capital of three billion [francs] is the sacred property of their owners, and that this capital is the security against the four-hundred million [francs] that they owe continental France. Consider that six million men live there along with eighty-thousand Frenchmen, and that half of France would be plunged into sadness and misery [if the islands were lost].”

—Signed, Monseron de l'Aunay. Chamber of Commerce of the Port city of Nantes, President of the Society of Friends of the Blacks, 1789
 

Based on Monseron de l’Aunay’s argument, the French concerns were influenced by which of the following?

A
Mercantilist principles of colonies benefiting the homeland country
B
Enlightenment thinkers' ideas of divine right
C
The monarch abusing his authority by mistreating the slaves
D
The reemergence of traditional Christian thinking regarding liberty
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Enlightenment thinkers were not concerned about divine rights. Also, this document is targeted toward the National Assembly and the monarchy is not mentioned. The French also did not want liberty for the people in their colonies. Therefore, the correct response is option (A) because it is pleading with the National Assembly to consider the wealth that the colonies bring to the motherland.
Question 6
“You send me alarming news from our sugar islands, principally from Saint Domingue. The inhabitants of that island may all be currently being held at knife point by the Negroes in revolt.

“Perverse men abuse the purity of your intentions, criminally interpreting the decrees of the National Assembly and making their treacherous plans undo what humanity and liberty have done for the happiness of its citizens in another hemisphere. In the name of this humanity, of which you are a worthy apostle, and in the name of the homeland that counts you among its best citizens, I beg you sir, add your voice to the cries of pain of all the Haitians of our islands, of the colonial land-owners living in France, and of the uncountable mass of Frenchmen who live off the commerce of the colonies. Consider that these colonies are France's destiny. Consider the sixty million [francs] profit from their exports each year, and the enormous importance of the income already lost. Consider that their capital of three billion [francs] is the sacred property of their owners, and that this capital is the security against the four-hundred million [francs] that they owe continental France. Consider that six million men live there along with eighty-thousand Frenchmen, and that half of France would be plunged into sadness and misery [if the islands were lost].”

—Signed, Monseron de l'Aunay. Chamber of Commerce of the Port city of Nantes, President of the Society of Friends of the Blacks, 1789
 

The tensions implied in this document would most directly result in which of the following?

A
The mass migration of slaves from Saint Domingue to France
B
The creation of faiths such as Vodou
C
The end of the French Empire
D
The independence movement by the inhabitants of Saint Domingue
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D) because, as tensions increase, slaves will rebel against the French to gain their freedom. Slaves will not migrate to France, Vodou had already existed on the island, and France had other sources of income other than Haiti.
Question 7
“You send me alarming news from our sugar islands, principally from Saint Domingue. The inhabitants of that island may all be currently being held at knife point by the Negroes in revolt.

“Perverse men abuse the purity of your intentions, criminally interpreting the decrees of the National Assembly and making their treacherous plans undo what humanity and liberty have done for the happiness of its citizens in another hemisphere. In the name of this humanity, of which you are a worthy apostle, and in the name of the homeland that counts you among its best citizens, I beg you sir, add your voice to the cries of pain of all the Haitians of our islands, of the colonial land-owners living in France, and of the uncountable mass of Frenchmen who live off the commerce of the colonies. Consider that these colonies are France's destiny. Consider the sixty million [francs] profit from their exports each year, and the enormous importance of the income already lost. Consider that their capital of three billion [francs] is the sacred property of their owners, and that this capital is the security against the four-hundred million [francs] that they owe continental France. Consider that six million men live there along with eighty-thousand Frenchmen, and that half of France would be plunged into sadness and misery [if the islands were lost].”

—Signed, Monseron de l'Aunay. Chamber of Commerce of the Port city of Nantes, President of the Society of Friends of the Blacks, 1789
 

Monseron de l’Aunay’s appeal to the National Assembly emphasizes the economic importance of the colonies primarily to argue for which of the following?

A
The abolition of slavery to improve the moral standing of France
B
The maintenance of the colonial system to secure France's financial interests
C
The immediate granting of independence to the colonies to avoid further revolts
D
The implementation of stricter laws to control the slave population more effectively
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Monseron de l’Aunay's letter to the National Assembly is a plea to recognize the economic contributions of the colonies to France, highlighting the profits from exports, the capital invested in the colonies, and the debts owed to continental France. His argument is rooted in the mercantilist principle that colonies exist to benefit the mother country economically. By emphasizing the financial stakes involved, including the potential loss of income and the impact on French citizens who depend on colonial trade, he advocates for preserving the colonial system rather than dismantling it due to humanitarian or moral considerations.
Question 8
“You send me alarming news from our sugar islands, principally from Saint Domingue. The inhabitants of that island may all be currently being held at knife point by the Negroes in revolt.

“Perverse men abuse the purity of your intentions, criminally interpreting the decrees of the National Assembly and making their treacherous plans undo what humanity and liberty have done for the happiness of its citizens in another hemisphere. In the name of this humanity, of which you are a worthy apostle, and in the name of the homeland that counts you among its best citizens, I beg you sir, add your voice to the cries of pain of all the Haitians of our islands, of the colonial land-owners living in France, and of the uncountable mass of Frenchmen who live off the commerce of the colonies. Consider that these colonies are France's destiny. Consider the sixty million [francs] profit from their exports each year, and the enormous importance of the income already lost. Consider that their capital of three billion [francs] is the sacred property of their owners, and that this capital is the security against the four-hundred million [francs] that they owe continental France. Consider that six million men live there along with eighty-thousand Frenchmen, and that half of France would be plunged into sadness and misery [if the islands were lost].”

—Signed, Monseron de l'Aunay. Chamber of Commerce of the Port city of Nantes, President of the Society of Friends of the Blacks, 1789
 

What can be inferred about the societal impact in France if the concerns raised by Monseron de l’Aunay were not addressed?

A
A significant portion of the French population would face economic hardship and unemployment
B
France would experience a rapid increase in the slave population due to migration
C
The National Assembly would likely pass reforms granting full citizenship to slaves
D
The French monarchy would regain absolute power to manage the colonial crisis
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Monseron de l’Aunay warns of the dire economic consequences for France if the colonial issues are not addressed, including the loss of profits from colonial exports and the potential impact on the French citizens reliant on the colonial economy. He suggests that the loss of the colonies would not only affect the colonial landowners but also plunge half of France into sadness and misery due to the economic fallout, indicating widespread economic hardship and unemployment among the French population dependent on the colonial trade.
Question 9
“You send me alarming news from our sugar islands, principally from Saint Domingue. The inhabitants of that island may all be currently being held at knife point by the Negroes in revolt.

“Perverse men abuse the purity of your intentions, criminally interpreting the decrees of the National Assembly and making their treacherous plans undo what humanity and liberty have done for the happiness of its citizens in another hemisphere. In the name of this humanity, of which you are a worthy apostle, and in the name of the homeland that counts you among its best citizens, I beg you sir, add your voice to the cries of pain of all the Haitians of our islands, of the colonial land-owners living in France, and of the uncountable mass of Frenchmen who live off the commerce of the colonies. Consider that these colonies are France's destiny. Consider the sixty million [francs] profit from their exports each year, and the enormous importance of the income already lost. Consider that their capital of three billion [francs] is the sacred property of their owners, and that this capital is the security against the four-hundred million [francs] that they owe continental France. Consider that six million men live there along with eighty-thousand Frenchmen, and that half of France would be plunged into sadness and misery [if the islands were lost].”

—Signed, Monseron de l'Aunay. Chamber of Commerce of the Port city of Nantes, President of the Society of Friends of the Blacks, 1789
 

How does Monseron de l’Aunay’s letter reflect the broader European colonial mindset of the late 18th century?

A
It demonstrates a growing awareness and concern for the rights and welfare of colonized peoples
B
It underscores the reliance on colonial wealth and the fear of losing control over lucrative territories
C
It highlights the desire for a peaceful transition to independence for colonies
D
It shows an early recognition of the unsustainable nature of the slave trade and colonial exploitation
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The letter from Monseron de l’Aunay to the National Assembly exemplifies the European colonial mindset that colonies were crucial economic assets to their mother countries. His argument is centered on the financial benefits that the colonies, particularly those involved in the sugar trade, provide to France. This reflects a broader European perspective of the time, which viewed colonies primarily as sources of wealth and strategic advantage, with little consideration given to the rights or well-being of the colonized peoples. The letter reveals a deep-seated fear among colonial stakeholders of losing control over these profitable territories, which could lead to significant economic and social repercussions for the colonial powers.
Question 10

Questions 10–15 refer to the passage below.

JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.

Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.

Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.

Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

—Grievance List, 1789
 

The above List of Grievances resulted from which of the following events?

A
The Creoles, Free Blacks, and Mulattos in Saint Domingue competing against one another
B
The French Revolution established a government based on Enlightenment principles
C
The working conditions on sugar plantations became better over time
D
Knowledge of the Emancipation Proclamation’s passage into law in the United States
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The List of Grievances concerns the rights of people, not rivalries between groups or brutal working conditions. Also, the Emancipation Proclamation was passed after this document.
Question 11
JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.

Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.

Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.

Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

—Grievance List, 1789
 

The List of Grievances above is best understood in the context of the French Empire’s tradition of

A
Encouraging the spread of indentured servants from Europe to replace local workers in the colonies
B
Forcibly removing white landowners in the colonies in favor of cheaper, less experienced minority groups
C
Maintaining the continued use the Mit’a system
D
Favoring French-born rather than American-born individuals in official positions
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D) because the passage is referring to the horrible treatment of Freemen that were not born in France. Creoles, Free Blacks and Mulattos were not indentured servants, and the Mit’a system was used in South America, not Haiti.
Question 12
JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.

Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.

Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.

Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

—Grievance List, 1789
 

Using the document and prior historical knowledge, which of the following can be inferred about the social hierarchy in the French Colonies?

A
Whites were granted privileges and exemptions and predominantly employed in commercial and administrative roles compared to Mulattos
B
Mulattos and slaves had equal status as the Creole class
C
Freed Creoles were at the top of the social hierarchy
D
Enlightenment ideas had already spread into the French Colonies which led the slaves to rebel against France
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A) because Mulattos were restricted while whites had many privileges. Slaves were lower in status than Mulattos and Creoles.
Question 13
JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.

Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.

Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.

Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

—Grievance List, 1789
 

The demands made in the Grievance List primarily seek to address inequalities based on which of the following criteria?

A
Economic status and wealth accumulation
B
Geographic origin and place of birth
C
Age and generational differences
D
Professional occupation and employment sector
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The grievances outlined in the document focus on rectifying inequalities faced by free citizens and colored landowners in the French colonies, particularly those related to racial and ethnic distinctions rather than economic status, age, or occupation. The document emphasizes the division between Freemen and those enslaved, and within the class of Freemen, it seeks equal rights for Whites, colored Creoles, Free Blacks, Mulattos, and other minorities. It specifically calls for the application of the Declaration of the Rights of Man to all free individuals, regardless of color, indicating that the primary concern is to overcome inequalities based on geographic origin and race. This push for equality reflects the broader Enlightenment ideals of universal rights and the abolition of legal distinctions based on birthplace and race, which were being debated during the French Revolution.
Question 14
JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.

Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.

Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.

Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

—Grievance List, 1789
 

What is the significance of invoking the Declaration of the Rights of Man in the Grievance List?

A
To demand the abolition of all colonial enterprises by the French government
B
To assert the universality of human rights and demand their application across racial lines
C
To call for an immediate end to all forms of taxation in the colonies
D
To promote the establishment of a separate legal system for the colonies
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). By invoking the Declaration of the Rights of Man, the authors of the Grievance List are aligning their demands with the revolutionary principles that were being established in France at the time. This declaration was a fundamental document of the French Revolution, articulating the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity. By requesting its application to themselves, the free citizens and colored landowners of the French colonies are asserting that the universal rights it proclaims should not be limited by race or color. They are demanding that the ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, which inspired the declaration, be applied universally, including within the colonies. This move seeks to extend the revolutionary principles of equality and human rights across racial lines, challenging the existing social and legal distinctions that had marginalized and discriminated against non-white populations in the colonies.
Question 15
JOURNAL, Containing the Complaints, Grievances, and Claims of the Free-citizens and colored landowners of the French Islands and Colonies:

Article I. The inhabitants of the French colonies are exclusively and generally divided into two classes, Freemen and those who are born, and live, in slavery.

Article II. The class of Freemen includes not only all the Whites, but also all of the colored Creoles, the Free Blacks, Mulattos, small minorities, and others.

Article III. The freed Creoles, as well as their children and their descendants, should have the same rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges as other colonists.

Article IV. For that purpose, the colored Creoles request that the Declaration of the Rights of Man, decreed by the National Assembly, be applied to them, as it is to Whites. Therefore, it is requested that Articles LVII and LIX of the Edict [the Black Code] dated March 1685, be rewritten and carried out in accordance with their form and content.

—Grievance List, 1789
 

The grievances presented in the document suggest which of the following about the impact of Enlightenment ideas in the French colonies?

A
They were largely rejected by the colonial populations in favor of traditional monarchical structures
B
They had limited influence, affecting only the economic policies of the colonies
C
They inspired a broad-based movement for equality and rights among free citizens and colored landowners
D
They were interpreted as supporting the continuation of slavery and racial hierarchies
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The grievances indicate that Enlightenment ideas had a significant impact on the free citizens and colored landowners in the French colonies, inspiring them to demand equality and rights. The document's reference to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and its call for the application of these rights to all free individuals, regardless of color, show that Enlightenment principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity were influencing colonial populations. This reflects a broad-based movement among these groups to challenge existing social and legal inequalities and to advocate for the universal application of human rights. The demands for equal rights, rank, prerogatives, exemptions, and privileges for colored Creoles, Free Blacks, Mulattos, and other minorities demonstrate the desire to extend Enlightenment ideals to all members of colonial society, directly challenging the racial hierarchies and discrimination that were prevalent at the time.
Question 16

Questions 16–20 refer to the passages below.

Source 1:
“Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. There would be an end of everything, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals. . .”

—Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws, 1748

Source 2:
“. . . The power of God makes itself felt in a moment from one extremity of the earth to another. Royal power works at the same time throughout all the realm. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Should God withdraw his hand, the earth would fall to pieces; should the king’s authority cease in the realm, all would be in confusion. . . . .”

—Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture, 1679
 

The argument in source two best shows which of the following ideas in history?

A
The power of the monarch was continuously challenged by the lower classes
B
The ruler gave God his power
C
Religion was the only means of political control
D
Rulers used religious texts to legitimize their political authority
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Source 2 uses religious justification to support the authority of the monarch, suggesting that the king's power is akin to divine will. This reflects a broader historical trend where rulers often invoked religious texts and concepts to legitimize their rule, reinforcing their authority by aligning it with divine sanction.
Question 17
Source 1:
“Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. There would be an end of everything, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals. . .”

—Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws, 1748

Source 2:
“. . . The power of God makes itself felt in a moment from one extremity of the earth to another. Royal power works at the same time throughout all the realm. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Should God withdraw his hand, the earth would fall to pieces; should the king’s authority cease in the realm, all would be in confusion. . . . .”

—Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture, 1679
 

The two sources best support which of the following conclusions?

A
Western European society had advanced legal codes
B
Religion was the only means to legitimize the power of a ruler
C
Institutions of government changed over time
D
The nobility continued their attempts to hold authority over the monarch
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The contrast between Source 1's advocacy for the separation of powers and Source 2's divine justification for monarchical authority illustrates the evolution of political thought and governance structures from the 17th to the 18th century, highlighting a shift towards more secular and democratic principles in Western European societies.
Question 18
Source 1:
“Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. There would be an end of everything, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals. . .”

—Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws, 1748

Source 2:
“. . . The power of God makes itself felt in a moment from one extremity of the earth to another. Royal power works at the same time throughout all the realm. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Should God withdraw his hand, the earth would fall to pieces; should the king’s authority cease in the realm, all would be in confusion. . . . .”

—Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture, 1679
 

The concept of separation of powers as discussed in Source 1 is fundamental to which of the following political systems?

A
Constitutional monarchy
B
Absolute monarchy
C
Democratic republic
D
Theocracy
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Montesquieu's argument in Source 1 emphasizes the importance of separating the judiciary, legislative, and executive powers to prevent tyranny and protect liberty. This principle is a key feature of democratic republics, where the separation of powers is implemented to ensure that no single branch of government can dominate the others, thus maintaining a balance that protects individual freedoms and the rule of law.
Question 19
Source 1:
“Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. There would be an end of everything, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals. . .”

—Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws, 1748

Source 2:
“. . . The power of God makes itself felt in a moment from one extremity of the earth to another. Royal power works at the same time throughout all the realm. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Should God withdraw his hand, the earth would fall to pieces; should the king’s authority cease in the realm, all would be in confusion. . . . .”

—Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture, 1679
 

Source 2’s depiction of royal power as divinely sanctioned suggests which of the following about the society it describes?

A
A strong belief in the divine right of kings
B
A separation between church and state
C
A movement towards secular governance
D
A challenge to monarchical authority
Question 19 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Source 2, by Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, illustrates the idea that monarchs derive their authority directly from God, similar to how God's will is manifested across the universe. This belief underscores a society where the monarchy is seen as an extension of divine will, legitimizing absolute royal authority and reinforcing the monarch's position at the top of the social and political hierarchy without challenge.
Question 20
Source 1:
“Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would be then the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. There would be an end of everything, were the same man, or the same body, whether of the nobles or of the people, to exercise those three powers, that of enacting laws, that of executing the public resolutions, and of trying the causes of individuals. . .”

—Baron de Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws, 1748

Source 2:
“. . . The power of God makes itself felt in a moment from one extremity of the earth to another. Royal power works at the same time throughout all the realm. It holds all the realm in position, as God holds the earth. Should God withdraw his hand, the earth would fall to pieces; should the king’s authority cease in the realm, all would be in confusion. . . . .”

—Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of the Holy Scripture, 1679
 

Comparing Source 1 and Source 2, what can be inferred about the evolution of political thought from the 17th to the 18th century?

A
There was a shift from religious to secular justifications for governance
B
There was a diminishing influence of the nobility in political matters
C
There was a consolidation of power in the hands of a single ruler
D
There was an emergence of democratic ideals among the lower classes
Question 20 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The transition from Source 2's 17th-century religious justification for monarchical power to Source 1's 18th-century advocacy for the separation of powers reflects a significant shift in political thought. This evolution marks a move away from viewing monarchs as divinely appointed rulers towards a more secular, rational basis for governance, emphasizing individual rights, the rule of law, and the distribution of governmental power to prevent abuse and ensure liberty.
Question 21

Questions 21–25 refer to the following image.

The image below was created in France circa 1789.



The ideas reflected in the image were caused by which of the following developments in the 18th century?

A
Acceptance of the lower classes in their role in the social and political hierarchy
B
The technological advances in agriculture and the declining status of farmers
C
Free-market economic policies of a modern economy
D
The abuses of the church and state
Question 21 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The image, created in France circa 1789, likely critiques the close relationship and mutual support between the monarchy (state) and the church at the expense of the general populace. This period was marked by growing discontent with the traditional social and political hierarchies, exacerbated by the perceived abuses and excesses of both the church and the state, leading to the revolutionary sentiments that characterized the era.
Question 22
The image below was created in France circa 1789.



Which of the following best describes the purpose of the artwork?

A
To criticize the estate system in France
B
To prepare the first estate to rise against the monarch
C
To encourage citizens to embrace their current social position
D
To promote support for independence movements to split France into three separate countries
Question 22 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The artwork likely aims to highlight the injustices and imbalances of the French estate system, where the clergy (First Estate) and the nobility (Second Estate) are supported by the labor of the Third Estate, which comprised the vast majority of the population. The depiction of the lower class bearing the weight of the upper classes underscores the critique of the social inequalities and the burdens placed on common people.
Question 23
The image below was created in France circa 1789.



Which of the following resulted from the publication of this artwork and works like it?

A
The involvement of the French government in the Seven Years War
B
The granting of religious freedom in France
C
The French empire abolishing slavery in the colonies
D
The increasing of ethnic violence
Question 23 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). While the artwork and similar publications primarily critiqued the social and political order, ultimately leading to revolutionary changes, one of the broader outcomes of the revolutionary period was the promotion of religious freedom. This shift was part of a larger movement towards liberty, equality, and fraternity, which included challenging the established religious and social hierarchies. However, the specific connection between this artwork and the granting of religious freedom is more symbolic of the era's transformative ideas than a direct causal relationship.
Question 24
The image below was created in France circa 1789.



The depiction of the Third Estate bearing the weight of the First and Second Estates in the artwork suggests which of the following about the artist's view on social inequality?

A
The artist believed social inequality was justified by the natural order of society
B
The artist viewed social inequality as a necessary evil for economic prosperity
C
The artist criticized the social inequality, highlighting the unfair burden on the Third Estate
D
The artist supported the idea that the Third Estate's role was to serve the upper classes without complaint
Question 24 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The artwork visually represents the Third Estate—comprising commoners and the working class—as bearing the literal and metaphorical weight of the clergy (First Estate) and the nobility (Second Estate). This portrayal criticizes the existing social structure by emphasizing the disproportionate and unjust burden placed on the majority of the population, who received the least benefit from their labor and had the fewest rights.
Question 25
The image below was created in France circa 1789.



How did the publication of artworks like the one above contribute to the French Revolution?

A
They incited the lower classes to passively accept their social status
B
They provided a visual representation that could easily be dismissed as propaganda by the monarchy
C
They spread revolutionary ideas and fostered a sense of injustice and unity among the Third Estate
D
They led to immediate reforms by the monarchy to alleviate the burdens of the Third Estate
Question 25 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Artworks such as the one shown here played a significant role in the lead-up to the French Revolution by visually communicating the grievances and inequalities experienced by the Third Estate. These images served as powerful tools for spreading revolutionary ideas, fostering a shared sense of injustice, and uniting people in their dissatisfaction with the existing social and political order. By making these complex issues easily understandable and relatable, the artworks contributed to the growing revolutionary sentiment among the populace.
Question 26

Questions 26–30 refers to the passage below.

“By the end of the 19th century Germany had advanced beyond Britain in terms of economic output. The prime reason for this was that Germany developed the newer industries, while Britain maintained a heavy stress on textile production. One of the most successful firms in Germany engaged in the manufacture of colours and pharmaceutical products, is the Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. of Elberfeld. This chemical works may be regarded as typical of a number of similar concerns engaged in the same branch of industry. The firm was originally founded by Friedrich Bayer in the year 1850 at Elberfeld on the banks of the Wupper. In 1881 it was registered as an Aktiengesellschaft [a Joint-stock company] under the name Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. . . .”

—Harold Baron, Chemical Industry on the Continent, 1909
 

The author’s point of view is best understood in relation to which of the following?

A
The advancements of the cotton textile industry
B
The establishment of quicker transportation methods, such as the railroads, to decrease cost of consumer products
C
The large-scale transnational businesses that relied on various financial institutions
D
The second industrial revolution
Question 26 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The passage highlights Germany's economic advancement over Britain by the end of the 19th century, attributing this success to Germany's focus on newer industries, such as chemicals and pharmaceuticals, exemplified by the Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. This shift towards newer industries is indicative of the broader changes associated with the Second Industrial Revolution, which saw significant technological advancements and a move away from industries like textiles that had dominated the First Industrial Revolution.
Question 27
“By the end of the 19th century Germany had advanced beyond Britain in terms of economic output. The prime reason for this was that Germany developed the newer industries, while Britain maintained a heavy stress on textile production. One of the most successful firms in Germany engaged in the manufacture of colours and pharmaceutical products, is the Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. of Elberfeld. This chemical works may be regarded as typical of a number of similar concerns engaged in the same branch of industry. The firm was originally founded by Friedrich Bayer in the year 1850 at Elberfeld on the banks of the Wupper. In 1881 it was registered as an Aktiengesellschaft [a Joint-stock company] under the name Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. . . .”

—Harold Baron, Chemical Industry on the Continent, 1909
 

The excerpt provides evidence to support the argument that, in the nineteenth century,

A
Germany’s industrial status was constantly changing
B
Western European powers competed with one another through means of production
C
Nationalism increased around the world due to the creation of joint stock companies
D
Trade led to adverse living conditions for the working class
Question 27 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The passage describes how Germany surpassed Britain in economic output by focusing on newer industries, such as the chemical sector, rather than continuing to emphasize traditional industries like textiles. This competition in industrial production between Germany and Britain reflects the broader competitive dynamics among Western European powers during the nineteenth century, as nations sought to outdo each other in technological and economic advancements.
Question 28
“By the end of the 19th century Germany had advanced beyond Britain in terms of economic output. The prime reason for this was that Germany developed the newer industries, while Britain maintained a heavy stress on textile production. One of the most successful firms in Germany engaged in the manufacture of colours and pharmaceutical products, is the Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. of Elberfeld. This chemical works may be regarded as typical of a number of similar concerns engaged in the same branch of industry. The firm was originally founded by Friedrich Bayer in the year 1850 at Elberfeld on the banks of the Wupper. In 1881 it was registered as an Aktiengesellschaft [a Joint-stock company] under the name Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. . . .”

—Harold Baron, Chemical Industry on the Continent, 1909
 

What does the success of Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. emphasize about the nature of industrial growth in Germany?

A
A reliance on traditional craftsmanship over industrial innovation
B
The importance of innovation and diversification in newer industries
C
The decline of the chemical industry in favor of heavy machinery
D
The role of government subsidies in ensuring company success
Question 28 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The success of Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co., as described in the passage, underscores the significance of focusing on innovation and diversifying into newer industrial sectors, such as chemicals and pharmaceuticals, for Germany's economic growth. This strategy allowed Germany to advance beyond Britain by developing industries that were at the forefront of technological progress during the Second Industrial Revolution.
Question 29
“By the end of the 19th century Germany had advanced beyond Britain in terms of economic output. The prime reason for this was that Germany developed the newer industries, while Britain maintained a heavy stress on textile production. One of the most successful firms in Germany engaged in the manufacture of colours and pharmaceutical products, is the Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. of Elberfeld. This chemical works may be regarded as typical of a number of similar concerns engaged in the same branch of industry. The firm was originally founded by Friedrich Bayer in the year 1850 at Elberfeld on the banks of the Wupper. In 1881 it was registered as an Aktiengesellschaft [a Joint-stock company] under the name Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. . . .”

—Harold Baron, Chemical Industry on the Continent, 1909
 

How does the transformation of Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. into a joint-stock company (Aktiengesellschaft) reflect broader economic trends of the time?

A
It was a shift away from family-owned businesses towards more communal forms of ownership
B
It showed a decrease in the significance of the chemical industry in the global market
C
It demonstrated the growing importance of capital accumulation and investment in industrial expansion
D
It emphasized the reduction of international trade barriers and tariffs
Question 29 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The transformation into a joint-stock company allowed Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. to access more significant capital, reflecting the era's shift towards larger scale industrial ventures that required substantial investment. This move was indicative of broader economic trends where industrial expansion was increasingly fueled by investments from a wider array of shareholders rather than solely family funds or small partnerships.
Question 30
“By the end of the 19th century Germany had advanced beyond Britain in terms of economic output. The prime reason for this was that Germany developed the newer industries, while Britain maintained a heavy stress on textile production. One of the most successful firms in Germany engaged in the manufacture of colours and pharmaceutical products, is the Farbenfabriken Friedr. Bayer & Co. of Elberfeld. This chemical works may be regarded as typical of a number of similar concerns engaged in the same branch of industry. The firm was originally founded by Friedrich Bayer in the year 1850 at Elberfeld on the banks of the Wupper. In 1881 it was registered as an Aktiengesellschaft [a Joint-stock company] under the name Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co. . . .”

—Harold Baron, Chemical Industry on the Continent, 1909
 

Based on the passage, which factor was most critical to the success of new industries in Germany compared to Britain?

A
The availability of natural resources
B
The focus on technological innovation and development of new industrial sectors
C
The implementation of protectionist trade policies
D
The expansion of colonial empires for raw materials
Question 30 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The passage credits Germany's surpassing of Britain in economic output to its emphasis on developing newer industries, such as chemicals and pharmaceuticals, rather than continuing to focus on older industries like textiles. This strategic focus on technological innovation and the cultivation of new industrial sectors was crucial for Germany's success in the competitive industrial landscape of the 19th century.
Question 31

Questions 31–35 refer to the passage below.

“From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

“The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

“The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

“Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.”

—Marx & Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848
 

Based on Marx and Engels’ argument, communist ideals were most clearly a direct reaction to which of the following?

A
The discovery of America
B
The Columbian Exchange and its growth of global commerce
C
A guild's ability to take over industrial production
D
Capitalism and the factory system
Question 31 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Marx and Engels critique the transformation of society through industrialization, highlighting the shift from feudal systems and guilds to a capitalist economy dominated by industrial millionaires and factories. Their argument in this book reflects a direct response to the inequalities and exploitations they perceived within the capitalist system, emphasizing the need for a communist society where the means of production are owned collectively, rather than by a class of industrial bourgeoisie.
Question 32
“From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

“The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

“The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

“Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.”

—Marx & Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848
 

Using prior historical knowledge and the excerpt above, Marx and Engels were advocating for a government based on which of the following:

A
Divine Right
B
Anarchy
C
Absolute Rule
D
Communism
Question 32 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Marx and Engels, in the Manifesto of the Communist Party, articulate a vision for a society that moves beyond the capitalist system, advocating for communism as an alternative. They argue for a classless society where the proletariat (working class) would overthrow the bourgeoisie (capitalist class), leading to the abolition of private property and the establishment of a government that represents the interests of the majority rather than a select few. Their advocacy for communism is rooted in a critique of the existing social and economic inequalities perpetuated by capitalism.
Question 33
“From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

“The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

“The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

“Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.”

—Marx & Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848
 

Marx and Engels' vision of society in the passage is most similar to which of the following?

A
Paleolithic society
B
Qing society and filial piety
C
The Spanish Empire and its relationship with its colonies
D
Japan in the Middle Ages
Question 33 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Marx and Engels' concept of a classless society, where resources and means of production are shared, draws parallels to the communal living arrangements thought to exist in Paleolithic societies. They describe these early human societies as practicing "primitive communism," where goods were shared among members of the community, reflecting their ideal of a future communist society. This vision contrasts with the hierarchical and class-based structures of Qing society, the Spanish Empire, and medieval Japan.
Question 34
“From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

“The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

“The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

“Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.”

—Marx & Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848
 

How does the passage describe the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the social and economic structures of the time?

A
It led to a dramatic shift from guild-based production to industrial capitalism, leading to the rise of the bourgeoisie
B
It led to a gradual evolution of feudal systems into more democratic societies
C
It led to the reinforcement of traditional guild systems due to technological advancements
D
It led to the decline of the bourgeoisie in favor of a more egalitarian society
Question 34 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Marx and Engels outline the transformation brought about by the Industrial Revolution, from the guild system of production to a capitalist economy characterized by factory systems and the dominance of the industrial middle class, or bourgeoisie. This shift disrupted traditional social orders and exacerbated class divisions, setting the stage for the communist critique of capitalism and its inherent inequalities.
Question 35
“From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

“The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

“The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

“Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.”

—Marx & Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 1848
 

What role do Marx and Engels attribute to technological advancements in the development of capitalist societies?

A
A marginal impact compared to the influence of colonial expansion
B
The catalyst for the transition from manual manufacturing to mass production, intensifying class divisions
C
A tool for the bourgeoisie to suppress the proletariat further
D
An opportunity for the proletariat to gain economic independence from the bourgeoisie
Question 35 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The passage highlights how technological advancements, particularly steam and machinery, revolutionized industrial production, replacing the manufacturing system with modern industry. Marx and Engels argue that these developments not only transformed the economic landscape but also deepened social inequalities by consolidating wealth and power in the hands of the industrial bourgeoisie, thereby intensifying the class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
Question 36

Questions 36–39 refer to the passage below.

“The Combers being men and boys may possibly turn to some other work, but it is not so with the wife and daughters of the day-labourers, whose occupation in a country parish where no particular manufactory is carried on, must be within their own dwelling; who deprived of Woollen Spinning have no other employment, (except when they can go into the fields) to bring in any money towards the support of the Family. To tell a poor woman with three, four or five children, all under the age at which farmers will employ them to set her children to work, where no Wool is to be had is a mockery of misery, and if it is in a neighborhood distant from Machines, where some hand-work is still put out, the low price that is paid for her unwearied labour, of running with her children all day at the Wheel, disheartens her. The scanty fare it enables them to eat when the day's work is done, with want of firing makes her at length prefer breaking a hedge for her own fuel, and often for sale to the Village Tradesman, and bringing up her children to the same idle habits.

“Many things combine to make the Hand Spinning of Wool, the most desirable work for the cottager's wife and children. A Wooden Wheel costing 2s. for each person, with one Reel costing 3s. set up the family. The Wool-man either supplies them with Wool by the pound or more at a time, as he can depend on their care, or they take it on his account from the chandler's shop, where they buy their food and raiment. No stock is required, and when they carry back their pound of Wool spun, they have no further concern in it. Children from five years old can run at the Wheel, it is a very wholesome employment for them, keeps them in constant exercise, and upright: persons can work at it till a very advanced age.”

—Observations on the Loss of Woollen Spinning, 1794
 

This document regards which of the following changes in world history?

A
The modernization of the cotton industry
B
The rapid development of steam-powered industry in European countries contributed to their presence on a global scale
C
The need for wool production in colonies to increase work for children
D
The development of the factory system that concentrated labor in a single location with specialization of labor
Question 36 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The passage highlights the impact of industrialization on traditional home-based wool spinning, particularly affecting the livelihoods of cottager's wives and children. It contrasts the emerging factory system, which centralized and specialized labor, with the decentralized, home-based work that was becoming obsolete. The document reflects concerns over the loss of traditional employment and the social changes brought about by the move towards factory-based production.
Question 37
“The Combers being men and boys may possibly turn to some other work, but it is not so with the wife and daughters of the day-labourers, whose occupation in a country parish where no particular manufactory is carried on, must be within their own dwelling; who deprived of Woollen Spinning have no other employment, (except when they can go into the fields) to bring in any money towards the support of the Family. To tell a poor woman with three, four or five children, all under the age at which farmers will employ them to set her children to work, where no Wool is to be had is a mockery of misery, and if it is in a neighborhood distant from Machines, where some hand-work is still put out, the low price that is paid for her unwearied labour, of running with her children all day at the Wheel, disheartens her. The scanty fare it enables them to eat when the day's work is done, with want of firing makes her at length prefer breaking a hedge for her own fuel, and often for sale to the Village Tradesman, and bringing up her children to the same idle habits.

“Many things combine to make the Hand Spinning of Wool, the most desirable work for the cottager's wife and children. A Wooden Wheel costing 2s. for each person, with one Reel costing 3s. set up the family. The Wool-man either supplies them with Wool by the pound or more at a time, as he can depend on their care, or they take it on his account from the chandler's shop, where they buy their food and raiment. No stock is required, and when they carry back their pound of Wool spun, they have no further concern in it. Children from five years old can run at the Wheel, it is a very wholesome employment for them, keeps them in constant exercise, and upright: persons can work at it till a very advanced age.”

—Observations on the Loss of Woollen Spinning, 1794
 

What does the passage imply about the social impact of industrialization on rural families?

A
Industrialization created a significant disruption of traditional home-based work, leading to economic and social challenges
B
Industrialization led to an improvement in living standards due to higher wages in factory jobs
C
Industrialization catalyzed the empowerment of women through increased employment opportunities in factories
D
Industrialization led to the reduction of child labor as industries moved away from home-based production
Question 37 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The passage describes how the shift away from hand-spinning wool, a traditional form of employment for rural families, particularly affecting women and children, led to hardship and forced them into less desirable forms of labor. It underscores the negative consequences of industrialization, such as loss of income, the introduction of "idle habits," and the social dislocation experienced by these families as their customary means of livelihood were undermined.
Question 38
“The Combers being men and boys may possibly turn to some other work, but it is not so with the wife and daughters of the day-labourers, whose occupation in a country parish where no particular manufactory is carried on, must be within their own dwelling; who deprived of Woollen Spinning have no other employment, (except when they can go into the fields) to bring in any money towards the support of the Family. To tell a poor woman with three, four or five children, all under the age at which farmers will employ them to set her children to work, where no Wool is to be had is a mockery of misery, and if it is in a neighborhood distant from Machines, where some hand-work is still put out, the low price that is paid for her unwearied labour, of running with her children all day at the Wheel, disheartens her. The scanty fare it enables them to eat when the day's work is done, with want of firing makes her at length prefer breaking a hedge for her own fuel, and often for sale to the Village Tradesman, and bringing up her children to the same idle habits.

“Many things combine to make the Hand Spinning of Wool, the most desirable work for the cottager's wife and children. A Wooden Wheel costing 2s. for each person, with one Reel costing 3s. set up the family. The Wool-man either supplies them with Wool by the pound or more at a time, as he can depend on their care, or they take it on his account from the chandler's shop, where they buy their food and raiment. No stock is required, and when they carry back their pound of Wool spun, they have no further concern in it. Children from five years old can run at the Wheel, it is a very wholesome employment for them, keeps them in constant exercise, and upright: persons can work at it till a very advanced age.”

—Observations on the Loss of Woollen Spinning, 1794
 

How does the document illustrate the economic transition from home-based production to factory work?

A
By highlighting the loss of independence experienced by rural families as they became dependent on factory jobs
B
By detailing the challenges faced by families as traditional forms of employment like wool spinning became obsolete
C
By suggesting that factory work offered more stable and lucrative employment opportunities
D
By indicating a widespread enthusiasm for the technological advancements that facilitated the factory system
Question 38 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The passage provides insight into the economic transition from home-based production to factory work by focusing on the difficulties encountered by rural families, particularly women and children, as the demand for their traditional work declined. It reflects on the broader economic shift of the Industrial Revolution, where technological advancements and the rise of factories rendered many forms of home-based production unviable, leading to significant social and economic adjustments for those affected.
Question 39
“The Combers being men and boys may possibly turn to some other work, but it is not so with the wife and daughters of the day-labourers, whose occupation in a country parish where no particular manufactory is carried on, must be within their own dwelling; who deprived of Woollen Spinning have no other employment, (except when they can go into the fields) to bring in any money towards the support of the Family. To tell a poor woman with three, four or five children, all under the age at which farmers will employ them to set her children to work, where no Wool is to be had is a mockery of misery, and if it is in a neighborhood distant from Machines, where some hand-work is still put out, the low price that is paid for her unwearied labour, of running with her children all day at the Wheel, disheartens her. The scanty fare it enables them to eat when the day's work is done, with want of firing makes her at length prefer breaking a hedge for her own fuel, and often for sale to the Village Tradesman, and bringing up her children to the same idle habits.

“Many things combine to make the Hand Spinning of Wool, the most desirable work for the cottager's wife and children. A Wooden Wheel costing 2s. for each person, with one Reel costing 3s. set up the family. The Wool-man either supplies them with Wool by the pound or more at a time, as he can depend on their care, or they take it on his account from the chandler's shop, where they buy their food and raiment. No stock is required, and when they carry back their pound of Wool spun, they have no further concern in it. Children from five years old can run at the Wheel, it is a very wholesome employment for them, keeps them in constant exercise, and upright: persons can work at it till a very advanced age.”

—Observations on the Loss of Woollen Spinning, 1794
 

What role did children play in the economic activities of rural families according to the document?

A
Children contributed to the family income from a very young age through home-based production activities like wool spinning
B
Children primarily received education and training for future factory work
C
Children were largely unaffected by the economic transitions of the time
D
Children were encouraged to seek apprenticeships in urban areas rather than contribute to home-based production
Question 39 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The document specifically mentions that children from five years old could participate in wool spinning, indicating their role in contributing to the family's economic well-being through home-based production. This highlights the integral part children played in the rural family economy prior to the widespread adoption of factory work, which significantly altered the nature of their contribution and the structure of family labor.
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