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Question 1

Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below.

“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

—Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, 1997
 

The information from the text above would most likely be used as evidence for which of the following arguments?

A
The development of domesticated animals led to the control of women
B
Men’s status was gained through their economic contributions
C
Europeans found superiority in the Americas
D
The increased use of domesticated animals increased the amount of food produced
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). This passage does not discuss the status of women or men and the passage mentions a decrease in population, not an increase in food production. The Europeans rose to power because of their early exposure to diseases.
Question 2
“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

—Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, 1997
 

Which of the following historical events would best support the author’s claim regarding who were the “first to fall victim”?

A
The spread of smallpox in Afro-Eurasia between the years 600 BCE–600 CE
B
The enslavement of ⅓ of the Roman population in the classical era
C
The forced migration of slaves across the Atlantic between the years 450 CE–1750 CE
D
The spread of epidemic diseases in the Americas between the years 1450 CE–1750 CE
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A) because the smallpox spread in Afro-Eurasia was a direct result of domestication of animals. (C), (D), and (E) happened after and were not related to those who first fell victim to disease. The use of slaves was not a direct result of disease.
Question 3
“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

—Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, 1997
 

Using prior historical knowledge and the passage above, which of the following areas was LEAST affected by the document’s main point?

A
East Asia
B
Sub-Saharan Africa
C
Central America
D
Europe
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). East Asians, Central American Natives and Europeans were all plagued with various diseases. The Saharan, although affected by Malaria that originated from mosquitoes, was geographically isolated from other diseases.
Question 4
“The humans who domesticated animals were the first to fall victim to the newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases. When such partly immune people came into contact with others who had had no previous exposure to the germs, epidemics resulted in which up to 99 percent of the previously unexposed population was killed. Germs thus acquired ultimately from domestic animals played decisive roles in the European conquests of Native Americans, Australians, South Africans, and Pacific islanders.”

—Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, 1997
 

The author’s argument in the passage is most likely a response to which of the following events?

A
The Bantu migration
B
The Columbian Exchange
C
The collapse of the Byzantine Empire
D
The spread of gunpowder across the Atlantic
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The Columbian Exchange contributed to a longstanding spread of disease that made conquering Native populations easy. Although Europeans used gunpowder, disease played a larger role. The Bantu did not conquer Natives, and the Byzantine Empire did not fall because of disease.
Question 5

Questions 5–8 refer to the chart below.



A historian studying the time period 1450–1750 would find the table above useful as a source of what information?

A
The spread of Buddhism across the Atlantic and Pacific trade routes
B
The spread of diseases across the world
C
The spread of new technologies and their impact on literacy rates
D
The extent to which population policies affected Asia
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). As disease spread in the Americas, population decreased. Buddhism did not spread along these trade routes and literacy rates are not shown with this set of data.
Question 6


Which of the following contributed most directly to the changes in the fifteenth century depicted in the chart?

A
The Little Ice Age in Eurasia
B
The conquest of the Aztec
C
The spread of diseases to the Americas
D
New food crops spreading to Europe
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The Little Ice Age decreased Eurasia’s population in the 15th century. The other three options did not take place in the 1400s.
Question 7


What caused the population changes between the 1600s and the 1700s as seen in the table?

A
The forced migration of Africans
B
The escalating spread of Christianity in the Indian Ocean
C
The spread of new crops to the Americas
D
The spread of diseases in Asia
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The chart does not reflect a rapid spread of Christianity or an increase in food crops in the Americas. Diseases did not spread to Asia during this time period. Therefore option (A) is the correct answer because the population decreases slightly.
Question 8


How can the population trends shown in the chart be interpreted in the context of global economic developments during the period 1450–1750?

A
The trends indicate a shift towards agrarian-based economies in most regions
B
The trends reflect the impact of mercantilism and the rise of the Atlantic trade.
C
The trends show the dominance of industrialization in the global economy
D
The trends suggest the decline of trade networks due to isolationist policies
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The population trends in the chart can be interpreted as reflecting the impact of mercantilism and the rise of the Atlantic trade during this period. The transatlantic slave trade, the discovery and colonization of the Americas, and the resultant shifts in global trade patterns under mercantilist policies had significant demographic impacts.

This includes the forced migration of Africans and the demographic changes in the Americas due to the spread of diseases and new crops. These trends are more indicative of the rise of global trade networks under mercantilism than a shift towards agrarian economies, the onset of industrialization, or the decline of trade due to isolationism.
Question 9

Questions 9–13 refer to the passage below.

“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

—The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

The author of the above passage used the term "Mosque" to refer to which of the following?

A
A Christian church
B
A Jewish synagogue
C
An Islamic mosque
D
An Aztec temple
Question 9 Explanation: 
Option (D) is the correct response. The term "Mosque" in this passage is used to describe the Aztec Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, rather than its conventional meaning of an Islamic place of worship. The context of the passage, set in the Aztec capital during the Spanish conquest, clarifies that the term is being applied to a significant religious site of the Aztec religion, not to a structure associated with Christianity, Judaism, or Islam.
Question 10
“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

—The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

The passage shows which of the following changes in history?

A
The shift of power from priests to soldiers in the Spanish Empire
B
The Spanish colonization of the Americas
C
The development of torture techniques
D
The movement of people across the Atlantic Ocean from the Americas to Europe
Question 10 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct because the Spaniards removed Natives as they colonized the Americas. Option (A) is incorrect because the Spanish crown is in charge. Torture had also previously been around and mass migration happened to the Americas, not from.
Question 11
“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

—The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

Based on the excerpt provided and your prior historical knowledge, which of the following best describes the direct effect of the events described by the eyewitness?

A
The cultivation of silver in Northern Mexico
B
The collapse of the Aztec Empire
C
Clashes between different branches of Islam
D
The planting of new food crops such as the potato to aid the loss of Native populations
Question 11 Explanation: 
The Spanish during this time conquered the Aztec and created a new colony in Mexico; therefore, option (B) is correct. Silver mining, Islam, or the Spaniard’s planting of new food crops are not related to the events of this passage.
Question 12
“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

—The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

The tone of this passage best reflects which of the following events between 1450–1750?

A
The organization of surplus labor
B
The spread of Christianity
C
Using religion as a source of power in the Spanish Empire
D
The militarism of European powers
Question 12 Explanation: 
Christianity is not mentioned in this passage, and what is described will result in a decline in labor. Therefore option (D) is correct because the Spanish conquered the Aztecs through increased military presence and the help of new technologies.
Question 13
“This witness saw Pedro de Alvarado [Cortés’ second in command] go to the Main Mosque [the Temple of Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital] with a certain number of Spaniards where they found the Indians getting ready for their dances. … Alvarado had [four of] them seized and … tortured to find out if they were to take arms against [the Spaniards]. … [They] confessed to anything … under torture. … Later Alvarado decided to go to the Main Mosque to kill them. … [He] called all his people to arms and … went with his men fully armed to the Main Mosque where three or four hundred Indians were dancing, holding each other’s hands … and another two or three thousand sitting down watching them. … [N]one of them moved; they remained still, and Alvarado began to surround them … as soon as they were surrounded, he began to hit them and cry “die” and all those with him did the same. … [T]hey killed four hundred noblemen and chiefs. … Alvarado must take the blame for it in the opinion of this witness.”

—The eyewitness testimony of a Spaniard with Cortés in Mexico.
 

The interactions described in the excerpt are best understood in the context of which of the following?

A
The deforestation of the Mexico region
B
The development of the Columbian Exchange
C
Women gaining power in agricultural societies
D
The increasing tolerance and respect for local religions
Question 13 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct because the Spanish coming over started the Columbian Exchange. During this time, the region was already deforested by the Aztecs, women were not gaining power, and Muslims and Jews were being expelled.
Question 14

Questions 14–17 refer to the passage below.

"Friday, 12 October. The course was W.S.W., and there was more sea than had been experienced in the whole voyage. They saw sandpipers, and a green reed near the ship. Those of the caravel Pinta saw a cane and a log; they also picked up a stick which appeared to have been carved with an iron tool, and a piece of cane, a plant which grows on land, and a small board. The crew of the caravel Niña also saw signs of land, and a small stick loaded with barnacles. With these signs everyone breathed afresh and rejoiced at these indications of land. The run until sunset was 27 leagues."

—Christopher Columbus, Journal of the First Voyage, 1492
 

Based on the excerpt, which of the following best describes Columbus’s initial approach to exploration?

A
Reliance on advanced navigational instruments and maps
B
Use of indigenous guides and knowledge of local territories
C
Observation of natural signs and materials for indications of land
D
Focus on establishing immediate trade relations with local populations
Question 14 Explanation: 
Option (C) is the correct response. The excerpt shows Columbus and his crew relying on observations of natural signs such as sea birds, floating reeds, and a piece of carved wood to indicate the proximity of land. This approach was typical of early explorers who lacked precise navigational instruments and had limited geographical knowledge of the areas they were exploring.
Question 15
"Friday, 12 October. The course was W.S.W., and there was more sea than had been experienced in the whole voyage. They saw sandpipers, and a green reed near the ship. Those of the caravel Pinta saw a cane and a log; they also picked up a stick which appeared to have been carved with an iron tool, and a piece of cane, a plant which grows on land, and a small board. The crew of the caravel Niña also saw signs of land, and a small stick loaded with barnacles. With these signs everyone breathed afresh and rejoiced at these indications of land. The run until sunset was 27 leagues."

—Christopher Columbus, Journal of the First Voyage, 1492
 

What does Columbus’s journal entry imply about the state of European geographic knowledge in 1492?

A
Europeans had a comprehensive understanding of the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas
B
There was significant uncertainty and limited knowledge about the Atlantic and its surrounding lands
C
European explorers had accurate maps of the Americas but lacked detailed knowledge of ocean currents
D
The primary focus of European exploration was to find direct trade routes to Asia, with little interest in new lands
Question 15 Explanation: 
Option (B) is the correct response. Columbus’s journal entry implies a state of uncertainty and limited knowledge about the Atlantic Ocean and the lands surrounding it. The reliance on rudimentary observations of natural signs to detect land indicates a lack of detailed maps and precise geographic knowledge of the Americas at the time. This lack of knowledge was characteristic of the European perspective on the Atlantic and the New World during the early stages of the Age of Exploration.
Question 16
"Friday, 12 October. The course was W.S.W., and there was more sea than had been experienced in the whole voyage. They saw sandpipers, and a green reed near the ship. Those of the caravel Pinta saw a cane and a log; they also picked up a stick which appeared to have been carved with an iron tool, and a piece of cane, a plant which grows on land, and a small board. The crew of the caravel Niña also saw signs of land, and a small stick loaded with barnacles. With these signs everyone breathed afresh and rejoiced at these indications of land. The run until sunset was 27 leagues."

—Christopher Columbus, Journal of the First Voyage, 1492
 

What does the journal entry indicate were the broader goals of European explorers during the Age of Exploration?

A
To discover and document new animal and plant species for scientific purposes
B
To establish diplomatic relations with civilizations outside of Europe
C
To find new trade routes and potential resources for economic gain
D
To spread European religious and cultural values to new lands
Question 16 Explanation: 
Option (C) is the correct response. Columbus’s journal entry, with its focus on finding signs of land and potential resources (evidenced by the observation of a stick carved with an iron tool), reflects the broader goal of European explorers to find new trade routes and resources. This was a primary motivation during the Age of Exploration, driven by the desire for economic gain through trade, particularly with Asia, and the potential wealth from undiscovered lands.
Question 17
"Friday, 12 October. The course was W.S.W., and there was more sea than had been experienced in the whole voyage. They saw sandpipers, and a green reed near the ship. Those of the caravel Pinta saw a cane and a log; they also picked up a stick which appeared to have been carved with an iron tool, and a piece of cane, a plant which grows on land, and a small board. The crew of the caravel Niña also saw signs of land, and a small stick loaded with barnacles. With these signs everyone breathed afresh and rejoiced at these indications of land. The run until sunset was 27 leagues."

—Christopher Columbus, Journal of the First Voyage, 1492
 

The observations made by Columbus and his crew, as described in the diary, can be seen as an early indication of what subsequent development in the Atlantic world?

A
The establishment of transatlantic slave trade routes
B
The beginning of extensive ecological exchanges between the Old and New Worlds
C
The immediate onset of colonial settlements in the New World
D
The rapid spread of European diseases in the Americas
Question 17 Explanation: 
Option (B) is the correct response. The observations made by Columbus and his crew, such as the sighting of unknown plants and materials, can be seen as early indications of what would become the Columbian Exchange. This exchange involved extensive ecological and cultural exchanges between the Old World (Europe, Asia, Africa) and the New World (the Americas). It included the transfer of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), diseases, and ideas between these two worlds, profoundly affecting the global environment and societies.
Question 18

Questions 18–22 refer to the passage below.

"Our fleet visited the nations far and wide, and everywhere we were treated with the utmost respect and hospitality. We exchanged gifts and goods, spreading the glory and benevolence of the Ming Emperor to distant lands. The seas were vast, but our ships were sturdy and well-provisioned, carrying silk, porcelain, and tea, and returning with treasures and curiosities from the foreign lands. Our Emperor's greatness was acknowledged by all, and many sent envoys with tributes to our court."

—Zheng He, Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during the early Ming Dynasty
 

The primary purpose of Zheng He's voyages, as described in the letter, was to:

A
Conquer and colonize foreign territories
B
Establish Chinese military dominance over the seas
C
Promote trade and diplomatic relations
D
Discover new lands for settlement
Question 18 Explanation: 
Option (C) is correct. Zheng He's voyages were primarily aimed at promoting trade and diplomatic relations, as indicated by the exchange of gifts and goods and the spread of the Ming Emperor's influence.
Question 19
"Our fleet visited the nations far and wide, and everywhere we were treated with the utmost respect and hospitality. We exchanged gifts and goods, spreading the glory and benevolence of the Ming Emperor to distant lands. The seas were vast, but our ships were sturdy and well-provisioned, carrying silk, porcelain, and tea, and returning with treasures and curiosities from the foreign lands. Our Emperor's greatness was acknowledged by all, and many sent envoys with tributes to our court."

—Zheng He, Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during the early Ming Dynasty
 

Zheng He's expeditions are an example of which of the following trends in the 15th century?

A
The decline of the Silk Road
B
The rise of transoceanic maritime exploration
C
The spread of Christianity
D
The emergence of gunpowder empires
Question 19 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct. Zheng He's voyages represent the rise of transoceanic maritime exploration during the 15th century, a period marked by significant advancements in navigation and shipbuilding.
Question 20
"Our fleet visited the nations far and wide, and everywhere we were treated with the utmost respect and hospitality. We exchanged gifts and goods, spreading the glory and benevolence of the Ming Emperor to distant lands. The seas were vast, but our ships were sturdy and well-provisioned, carrying silk, porcelain, and tea, and returning with treasures and curiosities from the foreign lands. Our Emperor's greatness was acknowledged by all, and many sent envoys with tributes to our court."

—Zheng He, Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during the early Ming Dynasty
 

The attitude of foreign nations towards Zheng He's fleet, as described in the letter, primarily reflects:

A
Fear and hostility towards the Chinese empire
B
Curiosity and interest in Chinese culture and goods
C
Indifference to Chinese diplomatic efforts
D
Resistance to foreign influence and trade
Question 20 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct. The letter describes how foreign nations treated Zheng He's fleet with respect and hospitality, indicating curiosity and interest in Chinese culture and goods.
Question 21
"Our fleet visited the nations far and wide, and everywhere we were treated with the utmost respect and hospitality. We exchanged gifts and goods, spreading the glory and benevolence of the Ming Emperor to distant lands. The seas were vast, but our ships were sturdy and well-provisioned, carrying silk, porcelain, and tea, and returning with treasures and curiosities from the foreign lands. Our Emperor's greatness was acknowledged by all, and many sent envoys with tributes to our court."

—Zheng He, Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during the early Ming Dynasty
 

The goods carried by Zheng He's fleet, such as silk, porcelain, and tea, suggest that:

A
China was technologically inferior to the nations they visited
B
China was primarily interested in importing luxury goods
C
China was a major producer of high-demand luxury goods
D
The voyages were intended for military conquest
Question 21 Explanation: 
Option (C) is correct. The mention of silk, porcelain, and tea, all high-demand luxury goods, suggests that China was a major producer and exporter of these items during this period.
Question 22
"Our fleet visited the nations far and wide, and everywhere we were treated with the utmost respect and hospitality. We exchanged gifts and goods, spreading the glory and benevolence of the Ming Emperor to distant lands. The seas were vast, but our ships were sturdy and well-provisioned, carrying silk, porcelain, and tea, and returning with treasures and curiosities from the foreign lands. Our Emperor's greatness was acknowledged by all, and many sent envoys with tributes to our court."

—Zheng He, Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during the early Ming Dynasty
 

The impact of Zheng He's voyages on the Ming Dynasty can best be described as:

A
Leading to significant territorial expansion
B
Diminishing the power and influence of the Ming Dynasty
C
Enhancing the prestige and diplomatic reach of the Ming Dynasty
D
Draining the resources of the Ming Dynasty without tangible benefits
Question 22 Explanation: 
Option (C) is correct. Zheng He's voyages enhanced the prestige and diplomatic reach of the Ming Dynasty, as they spread its influence and established diplomatic relations with distant lands.
Question 23

Questions 23–27 refer to the passage below.

"In the court of the great Khan, I witnessed wonders unimagined in our lands. The palace was vast and splendid, adorned with gold and precious stones. The Khan's subjects, diverse in their customs and attire, came from all corners of his vast empire, bringing tribute and tales from distant lands. The Khan himself, a ruler of immense power and wisdom, held audiences in a grand hall, where he listened to the needs of his people and dispensed justice. His dominion extended over many cities and provinces, each rich in trade and culture."

—Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, Circa 1300
 

Marco Polo's description of Kublai Khan's court primarily serves to:

A
Criticize the excesses and opulence of the Mongol Empire
B
Highlight the diversity and vastness of the Mongol Empire
C
Demonstrate the military might of the Mongol Empire
D
Illustrate the trade imbalances between Europe and Asia
Question 23 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct. Marco Polo's account emphasizes the diversity and vastness of the Mongol Empire, as seen in the variety of subjects and the richness of the empire's cities and provinces.
Question 24
"In the court of the great Khan, I witnessed wonders unimagined in our lands. The palace was vast and splendid, adorned with gold and precious stones. The Khan's subjects, diverse in their customs and attire, came from all corners of his vast empire, bringing tribute and tales from distant lands. The Khan himself, a ruler of immense power and wisdom, held audiences in a grand hall, where he listened to the needs of his people and dispensed justice. His dominion extended over many cities and provinces, each rich in trade and culture."

—Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, Circa 1300
 

The passage suggests that Kublai Khan's rule was characterized by:

A
Tyranny and oppression
B
Cultural and religious intolerance
C
Administrative efficiency and justice
D
Economic instability and decline
Question 24 Explanation: 
Option (C) is correct. The description of Kublai Khan holding audiences in a grand hall where he listened to his people suggests a rule marked by administrative efficiency and, as directly stated, justice.
Question 25
"In the court of the great Khan, I witnessed wonders unimagined in our lands. The palace was vast and splendid, adorned with gold and precious stones. The Khan's subjects, diverse in their customs and attire, came from all corners of his vast empire, bringing tribute and tales from distant lands. The Khan himself, a ruler of immense power and wisdom, held audiences in a grand hall, where he listened to the needs of his people and dispensed justice. His dominion extended over many cities and provinces, each rich in trade and culture."

—Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, Circa 1300
 

The "tribute and tales" brought by subjects to Kublai Khan's court indicate:

A
The forced submission of conquered peoples
B
The cultural exchange within the Mongol Empire
C
The economic exploitation of the empire's provinces
D
The isolationist policies of the Mongol Empire
Question 25 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct. The variety of "tribute and tales" from different lands brought to the court indicates a significant level of cultural exchange within the diverse regions of the Mongol Empire.
Question 26
"In the court of the great Khan, I witnessed wonders unimagined in our lands. The palace was vast and splendid, adorned with gold and precious stones. The Khan's subjects, diverse in their customs and attire, came from all corners of his vast empire, bringing tribute and tales from distant lands. The Khan himself, a ruler of immense power and wisdom, held audiences in a grand hall, where he listened to the needs of his people and dispensed justice. His dominion extended over many cities and provinces, each rich in trade and culture."

—Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, Circa 1300
 

Marco Polo's account of the Mongol Empire is significant because it:

A
Provides an unbiased, factual account of the Mongol Empire
B
Represents one of the few European perspectives of the Mongol Empire
C
Led to the immediate increase in trade between Europe and Asia
D
Caused the decline of the Mongol Empire
Question 26 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct. Marco Polo's account is significant as it represents one of the few perspectives from a European traveler about the Mongol Empire during that era, providing valuable insights into its culture and administration.
Question 27
"In the court of the great Khan, I witnessed wonders unimagined in our lands. The palace was vast and splendid, adorned with gold and precious stones. The Khan's subjects, diverse in their customs and attire, came from all corners of his vast empire, bringing tribute and tales from distant lands. The Khan himself, a ruler of immense power and wisdom, held audiences in a grand hall, where he listened to the needs of his people and dispensed justice. His dominion extended over many cities and provinces, each rich in trade and culture."

—Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, Circa 1300
 

The grandeur and wealth of Kublai Khan's palace, as described by Marco Polo, most likely reflect:

A
The Khan's personal taste for luxury and display
B
The economic prosperity and trade networks of the Mongol Empire
C
The influence of Chinese architectural styles
D
The plundering of wealth from conquered territories
Question 27 Explanation: 
Option (B) is correct. The grandeur and wealth of the palace likely reflect the economic prosperity of the Mongol Empire, bolstered by its extensive trade networks and the riches accrued from its vast territories.
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