AP World History Unit 8 New

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Question 1

Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below.

Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to the dishwasher.]

Khrushchev: We have such things.

Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses. In America, we like to make life easier for women...

Khrushchev: Your capitalistic attitude toward women does not occur under Communism.

Nixon: I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do is make life easier for our housewives.... Our steel workers, as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.

Khrushchev: We have steel workers and peasants who can afford to spend $14,000 for a house. Your American houses are built to last only 20 years so builders could sell new houses at the end. We build firmly. We build for our children and grandchildren.

—Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, The Kitchen Debate, 1959

Considering Nixon's mention of a dishwasher in an American context, what does this indicate about the characteristics of the United States' capitalist economy?

A
The American economy was bolstered by government support for labor unions
B
The American capitalist system encouraged the acquisition of large-scale industrial machinery
C
The effectiveness of new advertising techniques was shown in promoting consumer product purchases
D
The American free enterprise system facilitated the creation of a middle class capable of buying durable consumer goods
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Nixon's discussion reflects the broader context of the American capitalist economy during this period, specifically highlighting the development of a strong middle class. This class, supported by the free enterprise system, had the financial capability to purchase consumer durables like dishwashers. This phenomenon was part of broader economic trends that encouraged consumer spending and the acquisition of household technologies to simplify daily tasks, showcasing the American emphasis on improving domestic life through technology.
Question 2
Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to the dishwasher.]

Khrushchev: We have such things.

Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses. In America, we like to make life easier for women...

Khrushchev: Your capitalistic attitude toward women does not occur under Communism.

Nixon: I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do is make life easier for our housewives.... Our steel workers, as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.

Khrushchev: We have steel workers and peasants who can afford to spend $14,000 for a house. Your American houses are built to last only 20 years so builders could sell new houses at the end. We build firmly. We build for our children and grandchildren.

—Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, The Kitchen Debate, 1959

This passage provides evidence of a major turning point in world history primarily because:

A
It showed the shifting pattern of American trade with Russia
B
It exposed the underlying flaws of capitalism and the advantages of central planning
C
It showed that Nixon was a poor statesman
D
It marked a clear distinction over the fundamentals of Communism between Khrushchev and Nixon for the first time in a public forum
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The conversation between Nixon and Khrushchev, known as the "kitchen debate," stands out as a significant historical moment. It brought to the forefront the ideological clash between capitalism and communism, embodying the Cold War's essence. This public exchange between leaders of two superpowers underscored the deep ideological divides and served as a symbolic representation of the broader geopolitical tensions of the time.
Question 3
Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to the dishwasher.]

Khrushchev: We have such things.

Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses. In America, we like to make life easier for women...

Khrushchev: Your capitalistic attitude toward women does not occur under Communism.

Nixon: I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do is make life easier for our housewives.... Our steel workers, as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.

Khrushchev: We have steel workers and peasants who can afford to spend $14,000 for a house. Your American houses are built to last only 20 years so builders could sell new houses at the end. We build firmly. We build for our children and grandchildren.

—Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, The Kitchen Debate, 1959

The exchange between Nixon and Khruschev in the passage shows which of the struggles of the Cold War?

A
The political conflicts and ideological wars occurring in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
B
The economic battle over a consumer economy based on private enterprise or a command economy based on large-scale industrial production
C
The early formations of Marxist-Leninist doctrine in which an intellectual class of Communists must train the proletarians to develop class consciousness
D
The technological advancement of the Americans in the areas of mass industrialization
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The dialogue between Nixon and Khrushchev does not directly delve into geopolitical conflicts or the specifics of economic models. Instead, it highlights the ideological underpinnings of the Cold War, reflecting on the philosophical and social foundations of communism versus capitalism. The conversation points to the broader ideological struggle, where the promotion of class consciousness and the role of the state in people's lives were central themes.
Question 4
Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to the dishwasher.]

Khrushchev: We have such things.

Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses. In America, we like to make life easier for women...

Khrushchev: Your capitalistic attitude toward women does not occur under Communism.

Nixon: I think that this attitude towards women is universal. What we want to do is make life easier for our housewives.... Our steel workers, as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.

Khrushchev: We have steel workers and peasants who can afford to spend $14,000 for a house. Your American houses are built to last only 20 years so builders could sell new houses at the end. We build firmly. We build for our children and grandchildren.

—Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, The Kitchen Debate, 1959

In this passage, Khruschev states that American houses are “built to last only 20 years.” This is reflective of which Soviet critique?

A
American families strived to own homes in the suburbs.
B
The American economy was based on “planned obsolescence” or the unnecessary purchasing of products by consumers to support the economic growth.
C
The consumer economy was based on large scale industrial production that led to economic inequality.
D
The US had failed to build suitable housing for its steel workers as a result of the decline in labor unions.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Khrushchev's criticism of American housing practices taps into the concept of planned obsolescence, a strategy where products are designed to have a limited lifespan to encourage continual purchasing. This critique aligns with Soviet views on capitalist economies, arguing that such practices lead to wasteful consumption and prioritize economic growth over sustainability and long-term planning. Khrushchev contrasts this with the Soviet approach to building homes intended to last for generations, highlighting a fundamental difference in values regarding consumption and production.
Question 5

Questions 5–7 refer to the image below.

The medium of arm wrestling is used in the image to depict the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. What does this imply about the nature of their confrontation during the Cold War?

A
The competition was primarily physical and involved direct military engagements.
B
The leaders had personal vendettas that were the main drivers of the conflict.
C
The confrontation tested strength and resolve, emphasizing strategy and endurance rather than direct combat.
D
The conflict was resolved through peaceful means and mutual understanding.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Arm wrestling is a sport that tests strength and endurance, and in this context, it serves as a metaphor for the strategic and prolonged nature of the Cold War conflict. The image suggests that the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in a continuous test of ideological and military might, which required careful strategy and resilience, reflecting the essence of the era's geopolitical tensions without descending into open warfare.
Question 6

What does the positioning of the leaders over missiles in the image imply about the potential consequences of their rivalry?

A
The likelihood of an accidental launch of nuclear weapons due to human error.
B
The precarious balance of the arms race, where one wrong move could lead to catastrophic outcomes.
C
The dominance of one superpower over the other in terms of nuclear capabilities.
D
The ongoing negotiations for arms reduction and disarmament.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The imagery of the leaders arm wrestling atop missiles is a stark representation of the Cold War's arms race and the concept of mutually assured destruction. It signifies how the leaders' actions, like those in an arm-wrestling match, could have dire consequences, with the missiles serving as a reminder that any aggressive move could trigger a devastating nuclear war.
Question 7

Considering the focus on the leaders' one-on-one competition, what does this indicate about the role of individual leaders in the Cold War?

A
The insignificance of individual actions in the broader context of global politics.
B
The overestimation of personal diplomacy in international relations.
C
The significant impact of individual leaders' decisions and public interactions on the course of the Cold War.
D
The illusion of control by single leaders over complex international systems.
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The focus on the individual leaders arm wrestling symbolizes the significant influence that their personal decisions and diplomatic conduct had on the Cold War's trajectory. This suggests that the public actions and statements of figures like Khrushchev and Kennedy could sway public opinion, shape international relations, and alter the strategic decisions of their respective governments during this tense period.
Question 8

Questions 8–9 refer to the photograph below.

What does the image of an East German soldier peering through a hole in the Berlin Wall on the day it was dismantled symbolize about that moment in history?

A
The curiosity of East Germans about the Western world they had been separated from.
B
The opening up of a society that had been closed off by ideological and physical barriers for decades.
C
The surveillance practices that were common in East Germany before the Wall fell.
D
The individual experiences of soldiers during significant historical events.
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The depiction of a soldier looking through a hole in the Berlin Wall signifies a moment of transition and reflection. It represents the initial glimpses of reunification, as individuals from East Germany could now envisage a future without the division that the Wall represented. It's a powerful symbol of the end of the Cold War and the beginning of a new era for Germany and Europe.
Question 9

Considering the context of the Berlin Wall's fall, what can the soldier's action of staring through the wall imply about the broader impact of this event?

A
The continued division and distrust between East and West Germany despite the physical breach in the Wall.
B
The desire for reconnection and understanding after years of separation enforced by the Cold War.
C
The potential for increased surveillance and control despite the Wall's deconstruction.
D
The lack of immediate change in the lives of East German soldiers despite the historic event.
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The soldier's gaze through the Berlin Wall indicates a profound moment of contemplation and possibility. This action can be seen as emblematic of the broader sentiment of hope and desire for reunification among East Germans. It underscores the human impact of the Wall's fall, symbolizing the yearning for freedom and a shared future that many citizens felt after decades of separation.
Question 10

Questions 10–14 refer to the passages below.

Source 1:
“All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness... Those are unalienable truths. Nevertheless, for more than eighty years, the French imperialists, abusing the standard of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, have violated our fatherland and oppressed our fellow citizens. They have acted contrary to the ideals of humanity and justice...”

—Ho Chi Minh, The Declaration of Independence of Vietnam, 1945

Source 2:
"Yet if the Western world is still determined to rule mankind by force, then Africans, as a last resort, may have to appeal to (use) force in the effort to achieve freedom... We are determined to be free. We want education. We want the right to earn a decent living, the right to express our thoughts and emotions, to adopt and create forms of beauty. We demand for Black Africa autonomy and independence..."

—Jomo Kenyatta, Challenge to Colonial Powers, 1945

Both Ho Chi Minh and Jomo Kenyatta use references to Western ideals in their speeches. What purpose does this serve in their arguments for independence?

A
To expose the hypocrisy of the colonial powers in not upholding their own stated values.
B
To leverage the universal appeal of Western democratic ideals to strengthen their call for sovereignty.
C
To demonstrate their nations' willingness to assimilate Western culture and politics.
D
To appeal to Western citizens' sense of justice to gain international support.
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). By invoking the language of Western democratic ideals such as "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity," both leaders are highlighting the contradiction between the colonial powers' professed values and their actions. This strategic use of Western ideals serves to reinforce their arguments that colonialism is antithetical to the values of freedom and justice, and thus strengthens their calls for independence and self-determination.
Question 11
Source 1:
“All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness... Those are unalienable truths. Nevertheless, for more than eighty years, the French imperialists, abusing the standard of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, have violated our fatherland and oppressed our fellow citizens. They have acted contrary to the ideals of humanity and justice...”

—Ho Chi Minh, The Declaration of Independence of Vietnam, 1945

Source 2:
"Yet if the Western world is still determined to rule mankind by force, then Africans, as a last resort, may have to appeal to (use) force in the effort to achieve freedom... We are determined to be free. We want education. We want the right to earn a decent living, the right to express our thoughts and emotions, to adopt and create forms of beauty. We demand for Black Africa autonomy and independence..."

—Jomo Kenyatta, Challenge to Colonial Powers, 1945

In these excerpts, both Ho Chi Minh and Jomo Kenyatta discuss the concept of rights. How do their perspectives on rights contribute to their arguments for their respective nations' independence?

A
They suggest that rights are granted by Western powers and should be extended to all colonies.
B
They argue that rights are inherent and natural, demanding recognition by the colonial rulers.
C
They assert that the colonial powers have failed to protect the fundamental rights that all humans are entitled to.
D
They claim that rights can only be realized through the education and enlightenment Western civilization provides.
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Ho Chi Minh and Jomo Kenyatta assert that the colonial powers have failed to uphold the fundamental rights to which all human beings are entitled, such as the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. By doing so, they contribute to the argument that colonial rule is illegitimate and that their nations have the right to rule themselves and protect the rights of their citizens.
Question 12
Source 1:
“All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness... Those are unalienable truths. Nevertheless, for more than eighty years, the French imperialists, abusing the standard of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, have violated our fatherland and oppressed our fellow citizens. They have acted contrary to the ideals of humanity and justice...”

—Ho Chi Minh, The Declaration of Independence of Vietnam, 1945

Source 2:
"Yet if the Western world is still determined to rule mankind by force, then Africans, as a last resort, may have to appeal to (use) force in the effort to achieve freedom... We are determined to be free. We want education. We want the right to earn a decent living, the right to express our thoughts and emotions, to adopt and create forms of beauty. We demand for Black Africa autonomy and independence..."

—Jomo Kenyatta, Challenge to Colonial Powers, 1945

The use of terms like "unalienable Rights" and "demand for... autonomy and independence" in both sources indicates what shared sentiment between the Vietnamese and African anti-colonial movements?

A
An alignment with communist ideology and its emphasis on collective rights.
B
A belief in the need for external intervention to achieve self-governance.
C
A conviction that independence is a natural right, not a privilege granted by colonial powers.
D
A strategy to appeal to capitalist nations for economic support post-independence.
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The use of terms such as "unalienable Rights" reflects a shared conviction that independence is a natural and inherent right of all people, not a privilege to be granted by colonial powers. This sentiment underscores the anti-colonial movements' position that their struggle for autonomy and self-governance is justified and aligns with universal principles of human rights.
Question 13
Source 1:
“All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness... Those are unalienable truths. Nevertheless, for more than eighty years, the French imperialists, abusing the standard of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, have violated our fatherland and oppressed our fellow citizens. They have acted contrary to the ideals of humanity and justice...”

—Ho Chi Minh, The Declaration of Independence of Vietnam, 1945

Source 2:
"Yet if the Western world is still determined to rule mankind by force, then Africans, as a last resort, may have to appeal to (use) force in the effort to achieve freedom... We are determined to be free. We want education. We want the right to earn a decent living, the right to express our thoughts and emotions, to adopt and create forms of beauty. We demand for Black Africa autonomy and independence..."

—Jomo Kenyatta, Challenge to Colonial Powers, 1945

How do both Ho Chi Minh and Jomo Kenyatta address the theme of equality in their calls for independence?

A
By asserting that colonial powers should treat all nations equally regardless of history.
B
By demanding equal participation in global governance and international relations.
C
By highlighting the inequality perpetuated by colonialism and the need for its end to achieve true equality.
D
By proposing that the post-colonial world should be devoid of any form of hierarchy among nations
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Ho Chi Minh and Jomo Kenyatta both highlight the disparity between the colonial rhetoric of equality and the reality of their oppressive regimes. They use the theme of equality to illustrate that the end of colonial rule is essential for establishing genuine equality within their nations and in the international sphere.
Question 14
Source 1:
“All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness... Those are unalienable truths. Nevertheless, for more than eighty years, the French imperialists, abusing the standard of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, have violated our fatherland and oppressed our fellow citizens. They have acted contrary to the ideals of humanity and justice...”

—Ho Chi Minh, The Declaration of Independence of Vietnam, 1945

Source 2:
"Yet if the Western world is still determined to rule mankind by force, then Africans, as a last resort, may have to appeal to (use) force in the effort to achieve freedom... We are determined to be free. We want education. We want the right to earn a decent living, the right to express our thoughts and emotions, to adopt and create forms of beauty. We demand for Black Africa autonomy and independence..."

—Jomo Kenyatta, Challenge to Colonial Powers, 1945

In their declarations, both leaders allude to a "last resort" to achieve their goals. What does this reflect about the nature of the anti-colonial struggles at this time?

A
The preference for peaceful negotiation and diplomatic solutions before considering other means.
B
The unwillingness of colonial powers to engage in dialogue, necessitating other forms of action.
C
The readiness to adopt more forceful measures if peaceful methods do not yield independence.
D
The immediate need for military intervention by international bodies to assist in achieving freedom.
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The mention of a "last resort" in their statements reflects the gravity and urgency of the anti-colonial struggles. It indicates that while peaceful means are preferred, there is a preparedness to consider more assertive measures if those methods fail to bring about the desired result of independence. It underscores the determination of these leaders and their movements to achieve freedom and self-determination, even if it requires stepping beyond diplomacy.
Question 15

Questions 15–19 refer to the passage below.

“It is true that South Africa was often brought to the brink of destruction because of differences... Since we have achieved our freedom, there can only be one division amongst us: between those who cherish democracy and those who do not! As freedom loving people, we want to see our country prosper and provide basic services to all. For our freedom can never be complete or our democracy stable unless the basic needs of our people are met... As we rebuild our country, we should remain vigilant against the enemies of development and democracy, even if they come from within our own ranks. Violence will not bring us closer to our objectives. All of us should ask ourselves the question: Have I done everything in my power to bring about lasting peace and prosperity in my city and my country?”

—Nelson Mandela, On Reconciliation, 1999

Nelson Mandela's speech on reconciliation emphasizes a division based on what criterion?

A
Ethnicity or racial background of South Africans.
B
Historical allegiances during the period of apartheid.
C
Attitudes towards democracy among the population.
D
Geographical locations within South Africa.
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). In this excerpt, Mandela identifies the primary division in post-apartheid South Africa as between those who cherish democracy and those who do not. He stresses the importance of democratic values as the unifying force for the nation's rebuilding and development efforts, moving away from the historical divisions based on race or ethnicity.
Question 16
“It is true that South Africa was often brought to the brink of destruction because of differences... Since we have achieved our freedom, there can only be one division amongst us: between those who cherish democracy and those who do not! As freedom loving people, we want to see our country prosper and provide basic services to all. For our freedom can never be complete or our democracy stable unless the basic needs of our people are met... As we rebuild our country, we should remain vigilant against the enemies of development and democracy, even if they come from within our own ranks. Violence will not bring us closer to our objectives. All of us should ask ourselves the question: Have I done everything in my power to bring about lasting peace and prosperity in my city and my country?”

—Nelson Mandela, On Reconciliation, 1999

What is the underlying message in Mandela's call to provide basic services to all South Africans?

A
A goal to establish South Africa as a welfare state.
B
The necessity of reparations for past injustices.
C
The connection between meeting basic needs and strengthening democracy.
D
The desire to create an economically competitive nation on the global stage.
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Mandela articulates that the fulfillment of basic needs is essential for the completeness of freedom and the stability of democracy. His message underlines the idea that true democracy not only encompasses political rights but also involves the government's role in ensuring that the fundamental needs of its people are met.
Question 17
“It is true that South Africa was often brought to the brink of destruction because of differences... Since we have achieved our freedom, there can only be one division amongst us: between those who cherish democracy and those who do not! As freedom loving people, we want to see our country prosper and provide basic services to all. For our freedom can never be complete or our democracy stable unless the basic needs of our people are met... As we rebuild our country, we should remain vigilant against the enemies of development and democracy, even if they come from within our own ranks. Violence will not bring us closer to our objectives. All of us should ask ourselves the question: Have I done everything in my power to bring about lasting peace and prosperity in my city and my country?”

—Nelson Mandela, On Reconciliation, 1999

In Mandela's view, what is essential for the progress and stability of South Africa's democracy?

A
A robust military to defend against external threats.
B
The privatization of state-owned enterprises to encourage economic growth.
C
Vigilance against the forces opposing development and democratic values.
D
Unconditional support for government policies and programs.
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Mandela highlights the necessity of remaining vigilant against enemies of development and democracy, including those within the country's own ranks. This call for vigilance suggests that progress and stability require active defense of democratic principles and an ongoing commitment to the nation's developmental objectives.
Question 18
“It is true that South Africa was often brought to the brink of destruction because of differences... Since we have achieved our freedom, there can only be one division amongst us: between those who cherish democracy and those who do not! As freedom loving people, we want to see our country prosper and provide basic services to all. For our freedom can never be complete or our democracy stable unless the basic needs of our people are met... As we rebuild our country, we should remain vigilant against the enemies of development and democracy, even if they come from within our own ranks. Violence will not bring us closer to our objectives. All of us should ask ourselves the question: Have I done everything in my power to bring about lasting peace and prosperity in my city and my country?”

—Nelson Mandela, On Reconciliation, 1999

Mandela's mention of violence in the context of achieving objectives serves what purpose in his speech?

A
To endorse the use of force in protecting democratic institutions.
B
To reject violence as a means to attain the nation's goals.
C
To warn of the potential for civil unrest if demands are not met.
D
To acknowledge the historical role of violence in South Africa's struggle.
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). In the passage, Mandela clearly rejects violence as a means to bring South Africa closer to its objectives. His assertion underscores his commitment to peaceful progress and the notion that lasting peace and prosperity cannot be achieved through violence but through constructive, inclusive efforts.
Question 19
“It is true that South Africa was often brought to the brink of destruction because of differences... Since we have achieved our freedom, there can only be one division amongst us: between those who cherish democracy and those who do not! As freedom loving people, we want to see our country prosper and provide basic services to all. For our freedom can never be complete or our democracy stable unless the basic needs of our people are met... As we rebuild our country, we should remain vigilant against the enemies of development and democracy, even if they come from within our own ranks. Violence will not bring us closer to our objectives. All of us should ask ourselves the question: Have I done everything in my power to bring about lasting peace and prosperity in my city and my country?”

—Nelson Mandela, On Reconciliation, 1999

What does Mandela ask every citizen to reflect upon to contribute to peace and prosperity in South Africa?

A
Their personal wealth and contributions to the economy.
B
Their individual efforts to promote peace and prosperity in their community and country.
C
The degree to which they participate in national politics.
D
Their stance on foreign policy and international relations.
Question 19 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Mandela prompts every individual to consider whether they have done everything within their power to foster lasting peace and prosperity. This question is meant to inspire personal reflection and responsibility towards collective action for the betterment of the city and country, highlighting the role of each citizen in building a peaceful and prosperous democracy.
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